Indoor nightshade - home care, photo and description
Interesting information on nightshade
Solanum (Solanum) - a genus of evergreen trees, shrubs, shrubs, perennial and annual grasses belongs to the Solanum family. The genus Solanum belongs to more than one and a half thousand species of plants, distributed in the warm territories of an acceptable climate around the world. Therefore, it has many popular names for a plant with small orange fruits. You can hear: solanum, potato tree, Jerusalem cherry, Cuban cherry, indoor cherry.
The South African continent and some countries of Southeast Asia are considered the birthplace of the prevailing part of plants of the genus Solanaceae.
What is nightshade? The external data of the nightshade are absolutely different from each other, if, for example, compared with potatoes, tomatoes, and eggplant, the nightshade is dark fruit, or a valuable medicinal flower - nightshade is black. Under natural conditions, these are small shrubs year-round covered with greenery. Leaflets form oblong oval. Inflorescences are brush-shaped or paniculate. Nightshade flowers are white, yellow, violet or pink; they are collected in inflorescences cystiform or paniculate. Bright orange fruits resembling cherries give the plant a special charm.
A houseplant with red berries, the name for it - nightshade (solanum) has become a very frequent decoration and addition to the interior of apartments, offices, balconies. And for indoor cherries to feel at ease, she needs to create conditions that are close to natural. Namely, the humidity should be high, do not forget about spraying and coolness in winter.
Characteristic of the nightshade family
Solanaceae is a family of plants, which for 2019 has 115 genera and more than 2700 species. People come across many of them daily: indoor flowers, common vegetables, tobacco and medicinal plants.
Representatives of nightshade
Representatives are divided into three life forms:
- shrubs (erect and creeping);
- trees (nightshade or acnistus).
Together with the family of "bindweed" form the general order of nightshade.
False pepper nightshade is a perennial evergreen plant that belongs to the nightshade family. The stems branch, become stiff over time, the plant can grow 50 cm tall.
The leaves are medium sized, oblong, glossy, arranged in pairs and densely on the branches. The flowers are formed small, in shape resemble stars, the petals are painted white.
After flowering, round fruits are formed that look like cherries. In terms of maturity, their color changes from pale orange to red.
Poison and healing properties of the flower
Many people care about the question: is the nightshade poisonous or not? Unfortunately, all parts of the plant are poisonous. Experts do not recommend growing this plant in a house where there are small children.
When choosing a grade of nightshade for keeping in an apartment, you need to build on how you plan to use it. If for purely decorative purposes, take a false transverse appearance.
It is poisonous, but very beautiful. For medical purposes, pepper nightshade is chosen. It is used in the treatment of tonsillitis, the healing of cuts and small wounds.
In homeopathy, the plant is used to combat skin diseases, eliminate ear pains, treat rheumatism and gout.
All medicines from the nightshade that you decide to cook at home, you need to do, observing the exact dosage. It is advisable to consult a doctor.
What is the attractiveness of indoor nightshade
As you already understood, a houseplant with orange berries is nightshade, or solanum. Belongs to the nightshade family. His homeland is the tropical part of South America.
There are various rumors about him. Some flora lovers are afraid to keep it at home. It turns out that bright berries, for which a flower is valued, have poisonous properties. Fruits should not be eaten. Be careful if there are small children in the house. Clean the plant on high inaccessible shelves and cabinets, or generally refrain from the flower.
Nightshade does not give any toxic fumes. If he just stands indoors, he will not do any harm.
Nightshade is an evergreen shrub of small height. Leaves are shiny, oblong in shape. The fruits are large, similar to cherries, have a fiery orange color.
A houseplant with orange berries, the photo of which will prove its beauty, with due care, will delight the ovary and flowers. All this creates a beautiful picture. Therefore, nightshade is an excellent decoration of the room and an addition to the interior.
The most popular varieties
The nightshade family totals about 1700 copies. The most common types of solanum are found at home, as well as in gardens and greenhouses.
Types of nightshade
In nature, there are several hundred species of nightshade in the form of trees and shrubs, but in cultivated floriculture you can often find two varieties:
S. pseudocapsicum (false transverse) - shrub up to 120 cm tall with long lanceolate or oval leaves. Fruits can be both orange-red and yellow, flowers - white, five-membered.
False pepper nightshade (Solanum pseudocapsicum)
S. capsicastrum (pepper-shaped) - similar to the previous grade, but differs in miniature. It can be grown both at home and in the open ground in the garden.
Pepper nightshade (Solanum capsicastrum)
Curly, this type of nightshade is an evergreen vine. The flowers resemble stars in shape, the fruits have a light yellow color. It is unpretentious in content and is often used to decorate arbors and walls. Unlike many representatives of its species, it tolerates cold well. Therefore, it can be used on external facades.
Vendlan Solyanum - a curly evergreen shrub that can grow up to 6 m in height. There are small spikes on the branches. Leaves are long (up to 10 cm), dissected. The lower foliage is larger (up to 25 cm). Very beautiful purple-lilac bell-shaped flowers are inherent in this species.
What kind of nightshade to choose is a matter of taste. It is also worth considering the size of the flower. Large spreading representatives are suitable only for large houses.
Two methods are applicable in the propagation of nightshade: by seeds and cuttings. By the way, the size of the fruit depends on the method of propagation. Cuttings require a period for rooting and adaptation, the fruits appear on them after a long time and do not differ in large forms.
Indoor solanum from seeds gives strong bushes, and its fruits delight with bright color and a decent size. Let's consider both methods in more detail.
You can buy ready-made seeds or get them yourself from already adult plants that give fruit. First, they need to be disinfected in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, dried and spread over the surface of the soil, sprinkle on top with a small amount of wet sand.
Cover the container with seeds with film or glass. Before the shoots appear, the greenhouse is periodically aired and the soil is moistened.
The emergence of seedlings should be expected in 2-3 weeks. As soon as the sprouts have appeared safely, the shelter is removed, regular watering and loosening of the soil begin. After the formation of 2-3 strong and healthy leaves on the sprouts, they can be planted in separate pots.
Choose healthy and strong twigs. They are cut to a length of 10-15 cm and immediately planted in a pot. Soil should consist of equal parts of sand and peat. Then the cuttings are covered with a glass jar and put in a warm place.
Roots germinate in 2-3 weeks. The time has come to transfer them to stationary pots with soil in the form of a mixture of sand, humus and peat. As soon as young bushes are transplanted, they pinch the upper shoots.
Simple rules for growing berry mosaics at home
It’s easy to grow a culture on your windowsill. She feels excellent in various soils. The main condition - the soil should be loose in nature. Often, home culture fans grow indoor nightshade from seeds, carefully observing its development. The process begins in late May or early June.
Seeds are spread out evenly in small containers filled with suitable soil. Then they are covered with a layer of sand of approximately 1 cm and irrigated from a spray gun. The containers are covered with plastic wrap and placed in a room where the temperature is not lower than 22 ° C. It should also have plenty of daylight. The first seedlings turn green on the surface of the earth after about 14 days. When they get stronger, and there will be 3 leaves on the shoots, the sprouts will dive into other containers. After 30 days, the grown seedlings are transplanted again, but for a permanent habitat.
The last dive is carried out when the nightshade bushes grow to 15 cm in height.
When a plant takes root, you need to know the rules of how to prune a nightshade and not harm it. The procedure is performed several times a year. In late February or early March, all shoots of the crop are shortened by a third of the main length. This is best done during the ripening period of all berries, and when the foliage turns yellow.
For the effective formation of a bush of nightshade indoor, additional pruning is carried out in April or early May. The procedure is repeated before the buds open. To increase the bushiness of the crop in autumn, to branches where there are no buds and fruit ovaries, pinch new shoots. As a result, a cute decorative ornament strewn with bright fruits will appear on the windowsill.
Light nightshade should be provided as much as possible. With its lack, he can lose not only buds, but also fruits and leaves. Good lighting requires good fruiting. In winter, it is advisable to highlight nightshade artificially. If this is not possible, then put it on the most lighted window sill at the window of the southern orientation. In winter, the sun's rays are not so scorching, so they will not cause harm to the plant. In summer, nightshade should preferably be taken to fresh air. There he will have a good rest, develop, gain strength for winter flowering and fruiting.
In winter, the optimum temperature of its content is quite low and lies in the range + 12-15 degrees. This is an additional reason to put it on the windowsill, where the air temperature is lower than elsewhere. High room temperature is the most common reason that nightshade leaves turn yellow and fall in winter. In summer, the air temperature for this plant is not particularly important, especially if it is on the street. On average, it lies within + 18-25 degrees. The range, as you see, is wide and small deviations from it are not critical.
Note. Indoor nightshade really does not like temperature changes and drafts.
In the stage of growth, flowering and the formation of fruits, it is necessary to water the nightshade abundantly. The soil must not be allowed to dry out. When the flower goes to rest (fall – winter), it is rarely watered.
Indoor nightshade must be sprayed frequently. To do this, use pre-settled water at room temperature. Spraying is especially important when kept warm in the winter. To increase the moisture level, a small container of water can also be placed next to the plant.
In order for the plant to bloom profusely and bear fruit, it needs a large amount of nutrients. The plant is fed in the spring-summer period 1 time in 2 weeks. Use for this complex fertilizer for flowering plants. In winter, you can not fertilize the soil or feed it once every 4 weeks (use should be ½ part of the recommended dose).
Cropping tolerates well. And they make it after nightshade ceases to bear fruit, so that it does not lose its decorative effect. In the last winter weeks, he often sees yellowing and falling leaves. A procedure such as pruning greatly improves the condition of the plant. Be sure to shorten the main stem, as this will provoke the growth of side branches. And you should also pinch their ends.
It is recommended to transplant in the first spring weeks, before intensive growth begins. The soil must be used loose, easily passing air. Do not forget about a good drainage layer, which may consist of expanded clay. It is needed so that excess fluid can freely leave the pot. First, the plant is pruned by about 1/3, and then planted in new soil.
This plant does not live very long. So, it grows soon enough and loses its decorative effect. Therefore, some gardeners advise not to transplant nightshade, but to root the stalk taken from it.
To grow indoor nightshade, a plastic or ceramic pot is suitable, the main thing is that there are drainage holes in its bottom. Its size should be slightly larger than the root system of the plant. In a too spacious container, the soil can become acidic, which will lead to the death of the plant.
The soil for growing nightshade should be sufficiently nutritious and loose. It is made up of equal parts of turf land, humus and sand. For cultivation, you can also use a universal substrate for indoor plants of industrial production.
At the bottom of the pot, a drainage layer of expanded clay or river pebbles must be equipped.
Pests and diseases
The most common pests of nightshade:
- whitefly. At first, green larvae of this pest appear, which, subsequently, turn into small midges. Larvae and adults feed on nightshade juice. The plant begins to fade, its leaves turn yellow and fall. To combat whiteflies, ready-made preparations from this pest are used. For the complete destruction of whiteflies, nightshade is required to be sprayed at least 3 times, with an interval of 3-4 days. Before each treatment, it is necessary to remove all damaged leaves;
- orange aphid. Colonies of these pests can be found on the back of the leaves. Like whiteflies, orange aphids feed on plant sap. As a result, the leaves turn yellow, curl and fall, the plant gradually dries. A strong solution of laundry soap does well with orange aphids. They should spray the bush 2-3 times in one week.
Important! When working with soapy water, it must be avoided in the soil.
- red spider mite. This pest appears on nightshade at low humidity in the room. With a tick, a thin cobweb with red dots appears on the stem and leaves. To get rid of the spider mite, it is necessary to increase the overall humidity in the room and regularly spray the plant with warm water. If these measures are unsuccessful, then it is worth using acaricides. Instructions for use can be found on the packaging of the drug.
During flowering in the natural habitat, pollen is carried under the influence of even a small wind. If it is not possible to keep the plant on the balcony or garden at the time the buds open, for the formation of berries you will need to pollinate yourself.
To do this, you need to take the usual brush for painting with soft bristles and walk it through all the stamens with pollen.
Attention! If you do not carry out such a manipulation, that is, the probability of not waiting for the berries or their number will be minimal.
In winter, nightshade needs a rest period. To do this, put the pot with the plant at the end of October in a cool, well-lit place. The optimum temperature for nightshade in winter is + 13-15 °. With a warmer content, the plant begins to suffer from spider mites and whiteflies.
Winter and summer care for nightshade
Caring for a houseplant nightshade in the cold and warm season has its own distinctive features.
Features of seasonal spring-summer care.
- Young seedlings are watered as the soil dries.
- During the growth period, top dressing is not needed.It is enough to loosen the soil at the edges of the flowerpot so as not to injure the roots.
- When the nightshade blooms, he needs to help transfer the pollen from one flower to another (pollinate).
- Upon reaching the age of 4-5 years, the plant is transplanted into a substrate with an admixture of turf.
- With the onset of summer, the flower is taken out into the open air in a shaded and protected from drafts place.
- They are watered abundantly, applying fertilizing to the soil at least once every 2 weeks with a mixture of useful substances for tomatoes. Liquid fertilizers of the “Ideal” or “Rainbow” type also give a good effect.
- Spray the leaves twice a day - morning and evening.
Features seasonal autumn-winter care.
- As the cold weather approaches, the intensity of top dressing and watering is reduced (watered once every 10 days with soft water without chlorine). Nightshade should be at rest from October to February.
- The pot with solanium is placed in a cool, lit place with high humidity.
- Ventilate the plant once a week.
- At the end of February, the cherry will begin to wake up. During this period, you need to increase watering and start spraying.
Probable difficulties in growing indoor nightshade
There are not many of them. But the main difficulty lies in the fact that sometimes nightshade does not want to bear fruit or bear fruit poorly. The reason for this is the under-pollination of the plant. Most often, this happens with plants that are constantly in the room and are not able to fully pollinate. In this case, nightshade needs help. Artificial pollination of nightshade is not difficult. A soft brush is enough to walk through the flowers of the plant, transferring pollen from flower to flower.
Perhaps the problem is a lack of moisture. The problem is especially relevant in the heat. This can also happen with excessive watering, when the roots begin to rot.
If the nightshade starts to fall off the fruits of time, it lacks light and humidity. It is worth moving the pot to a place where there is more light and spray it more often.
The reason is that pollination did not occur. This can be done independently with a soft-brushed brush. Naturally, flowers are pollinated only outdoors.
This pest infects many indoor plants. Its appearance is determined by the formation of small cobwebs on the foliage and dark spots. The plant begins to gradually dry. To fix the problem, the foliage is sprayed with chemicals (Decis, Fosbetsid), alternating with a soapy solution.
The parasite is detected by the accumulation of small insects with wings on the back of the leaves. When shaking a flower, they take off. To eliminate whiteflies, spray 1% with Pegasus. Instead, you can take onion infusion.
Not so much is needed for nightshade to show itself in all its glory. The main thing is to adjust the intensity of watering in different seasons, and provide the flower with light. To keep it in good shape, periodically pruning the shoots.
With proper care, the plant will delight you with orange berries, similar to cherries, and a scattering of flowers.