Types of orchids: names, photos and descriptions of the leaves and flowers of indoor and wild plants, how many and which there are, as well as the features of home care
All types of orchids can be divided into two groups:
- Monopodial - orchid varieties that have one long stem growing vertically, and several peduncles can come out of the base of shoots (pseudobulbs) or sinuses of fleshy dense leaves, which contain all the nutrients and trace elements necessary for the full growth and flowering of the plant;
- Sympodial - this group includes orchid species that grow horizontally. They look like creeping vines, from which shoots connect to the root system. It is in these shoots that moisture and nutrient components accumulate. The leaves of this group of orchids are much narrower and thinner than the first species, and die off much faster than monopodia.
Adult plant height
The stem is very short - 15-18 cm.
Number of leaves
Up to 6-8 pieces ; old, lower leaves die out over time and new ones grow.
Maximum peduncle length
Up to 30 cm. The peduncle produces 10-15 buds that bloom sequentially one after another.
Photo of the peduncle Equestris.
Diameter, flower shape
The average diameter of the flower is 2.5–3 cm rounded petals and sepals, slightly narrowed at the base.
Genus, species and varieties of orchids
Varieties of orchids are striking in their quantity and variety. To list all orchids, several articles are not enough, and the plant family is constantly replenished. It is worth paying attention only to the most famous and popular of them.
How to determine the type of orchid? This question is of interest to many beginners in floriculture, because there are many varieties of orchids, and their care differs from each other. It is not worth worrying here - rare orchids are unlikely to get to the beginning grower, since they can not be purchased in simple stores, and the simple lover can handle the rest of the species by reading the information below.
How many types of orchids are there? This question is unlikely anyone will answer for sure. The catalog of orchids is increasing to this day - still in the tropical thickets are found more and more varieties of flowering plants of the Yatryshnikov or Orchid family, which includes an incredible amount of amazing beauty of flowers.
Grassy perennial orchid Paphiopedilum (Paphiopedilum), or Venus slipper.
The evergreen epiphyte cymbidium (Cymbidium) is part of the Orchidaceae family.
The stems of the plant have a maximally shortened appearance. They are equipped with wide shiny leaves, which are constantly going to the outlet. Their length is from 5 to 30 cm. Peduncles in their structure are long branching plants with large flowers. Flowers are found in unusual sizes and shapes. They resemble the look of exclusive exotic butterflies.
On the main view of the petals, a prominent lip of bright color can be found. The average flowering time is about 4 months. It is necessary to grow the plant at room temperature in plastic pots. The flower is not whimsical to care for and therefore is perfect for any grower.
Wanda is a unique species of orchid variety. You can meet her in South China, India or Australia. They are attached to the trees using their aerial roots. The ideal period for their flowering is spring and summer.
Typically, the flowering time is 2 times per month. Plants need a room with a great stream of circular air. It is worth keeping them in glass flowerpots. The plant can not be transplanted. After the purchase, you can leave it in a plastic basket. In a dry room, the plant requires a transplant into a clay or plastic container.
As the soil, bark of pine trees is used. In some cases, charcoal is allowed. Planting should be done without cutting the roots. It should be carefully folded into a ring and placed in a pot. Wanda is a thermophilic species of plants. Daily temperature should be no more than 22 degrees. Increased temperature is allowed in ventilated and humidified rooms. In winter, the temperature should be kept within 15 degrees.
Brassia is the most flowering perennial plant from the orchid family. The flowers of the plant are pear-shaped with the presence of several leaves on one stem. The leaves have a dense and smooth structure of bright green color. Unripe inflorescences with several buds are located in the leaves.
Orchid propagates vegetatively. For this, an adult matured plant is used. The procedure must be carried out in the spring. It is during this period that development occurs in the correct sequence. As the soil, moss, bark of pine trees and charcoal are suitable.
All components should be combined and get a wonderful soil mixture for Brassia. The resulting soil must be disinfected with boiling water. To eliminate rotting of the soil, plants should be transplanted regularly. This method helps to eliminate the violation of the root system.
Venus slipper is a perennial plant, the length of which reaches 30 cm. The leaves are capable of releasing only 1 peduncle, which usually have many flowers. Their diameter is about 12 cm with an unusual color. A flower requires special efforts for propagation and cultivation. It is necessary to grow it in shady places of the room. It should be protected from winds and earth pests.
To create the right soil, you should combine charcoal, bark and chalk. Rough soil is placed at the bottom of the tank. Moisture-resistant soil is laid near the surface. The roots develop in a horizontal direction. In connection with these conditions, the plant needs a wide pot. For natural growth, a certain temperature regime will be required. In the daytime, the temperature should be between +22 to + 32 degrees. At night, it should not exceed 18 degrees.
Dendrobium is preferably grown on the windowsill on the east side in the cold season. This is especially true of the very first flowering. This type of orchid is not recommended to be placed in the southern part of the room. The plant loves sunlight, but negatively tolerates too hot weather. The optimum temperature regime is considered to be in the range from 18 to 25 degrees. At night, the temperature must be reduced.
The flower is characterized by increased humidity. However, they tolerate the usual home environment. With low humidity, young leaves take the form of an accordion. The flower must be abundantly watered. In the cold season, the watering regime should be reduced. Flowering occurs in a certain cycle of plant development. Usually the period starts from autumn to spring. At elevated temperatures can immediately multiply. Young shoots appear, which are formed from the main flowers. The length of their root system is 5 cm.
The stem of the plant has a pear shape. It contains nutritional components that are necessary for development in an unfavorable environment. The flower is about 7 cm long. Fleshy roots in the form of a spiral are located in the lower part. Only large leaves are located at the top. In the process of development, new flowers are formed. They look like a long ladder. The surface of the plant is smooth to the touch.
Peduncles have a straight shape up to 50 cm long. On each stalk there are up to 12 buds that are fixed to each other in series. Zygopetalum does not require special care. Orchid grows in shady, humid forests. To preserve the natural habitat at home, regular watering is worthwhile. The plant needs diffused dim light. Optimal tempera should be about 25 degrees.
All the nuances of home care
Various parameters can vary depending on the type of orchid:
- place of cultivation;
- flowering period and period;
- soil type;
- watering frequency.
Unusual species of orchids bear the following names:
- Happy alien.
- Dancing girls.
- Flying duck.
- Pigeon (Peristeria high).
- White Heron.
- Infants in diapers.
- Women's shoe.
- Dracula or monkey orchid.
- Dancing lady.
- Laughing bumblebee.
- Hot lips.
- Cat's foot.
- Bearded Orchid.
- Italian Orchis or Orchid Naked Man.
- Coffee Orchid.
There are easy-to-care orchid species ideal for home growing.:
- Papeopedilum or Venus slipper.
The most expensive types of orchids:
- Gold Canibalu.
- Shenzhen Nongke.
- Rothschild's shoe.
There are also quite difficult types of orchids to care for.:
- The office is water-bearing.
- Dremlik is marsh.
- Gold Canibalu.
Rare species of orchids:
- Three birds.
- Sky blue sunny orchid.
- Hawaiian Swamp Orchid.
- Dragon's mouth.
- Orchid Coleman.
- Rothschild's shoe.
- Hokstetter Butterfly Orchid.
- Lady slippers.
What does an orchid flower look like?
Orchid flowers amaze with an abundance of various shapes, various colors, amazing structures, patterns and, of course, aromas. The size of the flower, depending on the type and type of plant, varies from 1 to 25 cm in diameter. The complex structure of all flowers includes:
- Three bright colors sometimes sealed sepals, which alternate with three petals. In some species, sepals and petals vary in color.
- The center of the flower is a unique formation - labellium, whose role is to attract insects.
- The fused pestle and stamen form a column under which pollen gathers.
An unusual and very beautiful orchid flower in a pot (photo you will find in the article) can please for a long time with its flowering even in the northern latitudes.
Unpretentious species include those plant species that do not require special conditions of maintenance and care. Ideal for beginner gardeners. They are easy to grow under the correct temperature conditions. These orchids include:
- Doritis and a number of other easy-care and popular flowers.
Those who are impressed by the delicate delicate aroma emanating from certain types of culture should pay attention to the following types:
- many varieties of Phalaenopsis;
It is known that vanilla is often used in the food industry.
The rarity of some species lies in a special type of flower. They differ in appearance and size from many other colors. Among such orchids:
- White heron;
- Flying duck;
- Royal blue phalaenopsis.
Rare varieties attract many florists by the fact that their flowers resemble birds or animals.
With proper care, you can quite successfully grow the most exotic varieties of orchids at home. However, almost all species of Phalaenopsis, Wanda, Oncidium, Brassia, Tselogina and other varieties feel best as indoor flowers.
Orchid has always been a popular and most desired flower for gardeners. Therefore, new, incredibly beautiful hybrids of this plant still appear. In addition to the fact that gardeners create orchids that differ in appearance, they constantly improve the flowering time of the plant, trying to reduce the dormant period. Recently, the following species have appeared: Rothschild's shoe, Bull, Ghost, Three birds, Dragon's mouth, Lady slippers and some other hybrid varieties.
Lighting for a home orchid
One of the necessary conditions for growing a flower is proper lighting. The orchid does not tolerate direct sunlight, but does not like the shadow, it needs diffused light. With sufficient light, it blooms regularly, otherwise the leaves will stretch and turn yellow. In the summer, it must be shaded from direct sunlight, so that it gradually adapts after the winter to bright light.
In autumn, natural light decreases, and the orchid enters a dormant period. She is laying flower buds and shoots are ripening. In addition, the plant needs a daylight hours of 12 hours, otherwise it will require artificial lighting. When observing the light regime, the plant looks great. This can be seen by looking at a photo of orchids in a pot.
All orchids are divided into three groups according to the temperature regime:
- Heat-loving - they come from coastal plains and tropical forests. They prefer a temperature of about 30 in summer and from 15 to 20 degrees in winter.
- With a moderate temperature, they migrated to us from the mountain tropics of the middle belt. In summer they feel comfortable at 18-24, and in winter at 12-16 degrees.
- Cold-loving - their ancestors from areas with a subtropical climate. For the summer period, the optimum temperature is 22, and for the winter - 15 degrees.
How to care? The orchid in the pot in the photo looks great. Watering a plant determines the success of growth and prosperous flowering of a beautiful beauty. Orchid is a tropical plant, and its roots can absorb and retain the necessary amount of moisture for a certain time. A flower tolerates dry rather than waterlogged soil. The intensity of watering a plant depends on many factors: the vegetation phase, dryness and air temperature, the illumination of the room, the size of the pot and the type of orchid itself. Water the plant with settled soft water.
With the active growth of orchids, the emission of peduncles, and then during flowering, watering is carried out two to three times a week. In the winter period of rest, the frequency of watering is reduced to one to two times. A reminder that the plant needs to be watered is slightly wrinkled pseudobulbs.
The water temperature should exceed the ambient temperature by 2-3 degrees. Orchids in pots (photos of flowers are presented in the article) are watered from above. When placing them in baskets and watering blocks, the plants are immersed in water. To prevent stagnation of water, it is allowed to drain with all watering methods.
Optimum performance - 50–70%. It normally tolerates airing without strong drafts.
After shopping at the store
- Do not transplant Phalaenopsis Equestris immediately after acquisition;
- give time for acclimatization and the identification of hidden diseases and insects;
- Do not transplant the orchid during flowering;
- Do not change the location of the plant during flowering;
- when spraying from a spray gun, do not get on the petals;
- Avoid strong drafts and the bright sun falling on the leaves and peduncle.
What nutrients do orchids need?
- Nitrogenfor leaf and shoot growth: nitrogen provides healthy growth of annual shoots and leaves. Nitrogen deficiency can be recognized by small yellow leaves, an abundance of soft plant tissue.
- Phosphorusfor root and flower growth: phosphorus provides flowering and healthy root growth. Phosphorus deficiency can be recognized by the red color of the leaves, especially on the underside of the leaves.
- Calciumpromotes growth: calcium ensures that the plant can absorb and use other important trace elements. It also promotes growth, especially roots.
- Potassiumincreases resistance: potassium promotes metabolic processes in the orchid, which increases their resistance.Potassium deficiency can lead to soft tissue of the plant and stunted growth.
- Magnesiumpromotes metabolism: magnesium also provides healthy growth, as it contributes to metabolic processes. If there is a deficiency of magnesium, the leaves remain light green.
Soil, fertilizers and containers for orchids
The main composition of the soil used for planting orchids includes sifted sand, clay, moss, cork, coal, bark. Garden land should not be added. All this is well crushed and mixed. The orchid is unpretentious to the pots in which it is grown. A prerequisite is a hole at the bottom of the tank through which excess moisture will be removed. It is clearly visible in the photo what an orchid looks like in a pot. She is in excellent condition. Fertilizer for plants purchased in a flower shop.
Feeding should only be during a period of intensive growth and not more than once every three weeks. The main thing is not to overdo it and observe the proportions indicated on the package. In general, an orchid does not require top dressing at all, because all the nutrients are contained in the substrate if it changes every two years. Excessive mineral content reduces immunity and exposes the plant to diseases and adversity.
Blooming home orchid in a pot, photo
By purchasing a blooming orchid in the store, you most likely will not be happy for its beauty for a long time. How to make the flower bloom again? To do this, you must:
- Observe the length of daylight hours. For each type of orchid, it is different: if the daylight hours are short, then additional lighting is used. Only if these conditions are met, flower buds will be laid and the plant will form peduncles.
- Monitor the difference in night and day temperatures. The difference should not exceed 5-7 degrees.
If even after these conditions are fulfilled, the orchid in the pot, whose photo shows the correct capacity for the plant, still has not bloomed, you must:
- lower the temperature to 16 degrees in two weeks;
- reduce watering.
After flowering resumes, a lovely orchid will adorn your home for two to eight months a year. Flowering will depend on the type of plant. Watering during this period is doubled. After flowering, dry buds are cut and top dressing begins.
Orchid Diseases and Pests
Most often, due to an inattentive attitude to the plant or improper care for it, the following troubles may arise:
- The appearance of flabby leaves - signals a non-compliance with the temperature regime. Additional funds will not be required if the situation is rectified on time.
- Cracks in the middle of the leaf - a sharp change in temperature after watering.
- Black spots, holes and growths - a burn from the rays of the sun.
- The leaves dry and rot - a soft mite has appeared, which is located in the middle of the outlet. To combat it, acaricidal drugs are needed.
- A spider web appeared on the wrong side of the leaf - a spider mite wound up. If you do not attach importance to this, then the leaves and flowers will turn yellow and rot. To destroy the pest, you must use the biological product "Fitoverm".
- The flower suddenly stops flowering and growth - nematodes appeared on the back of the leaf, sucking juice from them. To destroy them, use nematicides.
Having defeated all ailments, the plant will again delight you with its beauty, as shown in the photo of orchid flowers in pots above.
The most unpleasant and irreparable is the infection of orchids with viruses. Plants may be infected by viruses, but this does not appear externally. None of the known anti-virus remedies help. In this case, there is only one way out - to destroy the plant.
Bacterioses occur whenever water accumulates on the leaves or sinuses of the leaves for a long time. Plant tissue suffers from this. Avoid stagnation of water on various parts of the plant.
- direct sunlight and burns;
- root rot, in which leaves begin to turn yellow and fade;
- Fusarium - the leaf loses turgor and becomes soft, with time a red coating appears.
Arises due to overflow and lack of drainage holes.
Increased humidity without airing and standing water in the axils of the leaves contribute to the growth of fungi:
- anthracnose - rounded black spots appear, which eventually become yellow or pinkish;
- powdery mildew - a raid of gray-white color;
- soot fungus - a gray coating that appears on plants infected with scaleflies and mealybugs. The sticky secretions of these pests are a suitable medium for the formation of soot fungus.
Treatment of fungal diseases:
- treatment with fungicides with an interval of 10 days of the ground part and the roots of the orchid;
- removal of damaged, dark roots and completely wrinkled leaves;
- plant transplantation into a new substrate and disinfection of the old pot.
Viral diseases of orchids are not treatable. They appear as spotting on the leaves and petals in the form of a mosaic. The shape of the spots can be different: elongated and round, in the form of strokes and stripes.
ATTENTION! At the first suspicion, isolate the infected plant from all crops. If the disease is confirmed, the orchid will have to be destroyed.
What to do if the orchid does not bloom?
Even the most thorough care does not guarantee that the plant will give color. In order for it to form buds, it is necessary to find out and eliminate the causes of their absence.
The reasons. Most often, the orchid does not bloom due to excessive care. Such conditions are not characteristic of the natural habitat of the plant, so it grows leaves, but does not give buds.
Other interfering factors:
Rotting or damage to the root system.
Too small pot.
Stress due to habitat change.
Finding a plant in a draft.
Constant movement of the pot from place to place.
Young plants do not bloom. Buds appear only on specimens older than 1.5 years, while they must have at least 5 leaves.
You can not put an orchid next to a fruit vase. Ethylene, which is secreted by fruits, inhibits flowering.
What to do if it does not bloom? The orchid should be in such conditions that the temperature difference during the day and night hours is 4-6 degrees. If the root system has grown a lot, you need a new pot. When transplanting, all damaged roots are removed.
Refuse watering for 2 weeks. Before this, the plant is abundantly moisturized for 3 days.
Add succinic acid or epin. The plant is fed 3 times a week every day.
Saturate with moisture from the outside. To do this, put the pot in a steamed shower and leave for 15-20 minutes.
Refuse to use nitrogen fertilizers, or reduce their application.
The likelihood of flowers on the orchid increases when the following conditions are met:
The plant receives light at least 16 hours a day.
The air is humid all the time.
Orchids are not threatened by parasites and diseases.
Regular care and creation of conditions close to those in which the orchid exists in the natural environment will help it adapt and give a rich color.
How to transplant an orchid
The most favorable time for a plant transplant is the beginning of the period after flowering: the end of May or June. It is important to remember that the plant does not tolerate transplantation, so you should consider this moment when leaving. Orchid in a pot (photo, which is in the article) is transplanted only if necessary. And this need arises if:
- the pot became too small for a grown flower;
- death of certain parts of the plant occurred;
- Substrate replacement has come.
The transplant is done very carefully and carefully so as not to damage the roots. Sometimes it’s better to cut the pot. You should carefully inspect the root system, cleaning it from the ground. Use sterile scissors to remove damaged and dried roots. Rinse the root system in clean water, put the soil in a pot, lower the orchid and gently fill the roots with a substrate. After transplanting for 2-3 days, the plant must be held in a shaded place and then returned to its usual conditions.
Orchid Equestris Propagated by cuttings and children.
Baby - a lateral shoot appeared at the base of the stem or on a peduncle, which is able to form an independent orchid.
How to stimulate the appearance of a baby:
- do not cut the peduncle until it dries completely;
- fertilize with a high dose of nitrogen;
- humidity indicators increase to 70%;
- when a new sprout appears, the estimated root growth site;
- wrap with moss and spray it.
The presence of roots and three leaves in the baby - a signal for its transfer to a separate container.
- cut the cuttings from the stem 10 cm long;
- treat slices with charcoal;
- put the cuttings on the moss sphagnum;
- create greenhouse conditions;
- after the appearance of three leaves with roots from an awakened bud, the plant can be transferred to a separate pot.
Planting a plant with seeds is a laborious process. After the seeds have sunk into the ground, the container is tightly closed. The first sprouts appear 9 to 10 months after planting. After 2 years, the plant is transplanted into a permanent pot.
It is no secret that orchids are grown for flowers. Large, of various original colors, they differ from other plants in a special shape, often similar to fairytale insects. In nature, they attract male insects that fly to them for mating and facilitate the transfer of pollen from one flower to another. At home, orchids during flowering are very vulnerable. They need enhanced nutrition and watering, they suffer from temperature differences, but at the same time they are pleased with abundant flowering.