Homemade Yucca Care: Growing Features
Description of the plant and its species
Yucca is an evergreen tree plant with a thick and hard, slightly branched trunk. It refers to succulents, as it is able to accumulate moisture in its trunk and shoots. The top of the trunk and the ends of the shoots end with dense rosettes of long and narrow leaves. Yucca leaves are hard, leathery, pointed at the ends. Young plants, when their trunk is still short, look like lush leaf sockets.
Gradually, in the process of growth, the old leaves die off and dry out, and the shoots and trunk are lengthened and exposed.
The plant takes the form of a tree and is very similar in shape to a palm tree. But there are stemless rosette species. Yucca blooms very beautifully. She throws a long peduncle, on which numerous white or yellowish flowers bloom in the form of large bells.
They exude a strong and pleasant aroma. Of the more than 40 species of yucca, about 10 are common in the culture. There are very undemanding to temperature conditions varieties that withstand prolonged winter frosts.
They are grown as garden plants:
- Yucca Sizaya - has a short trunk and very long leaves (up to 90 cm), collected in a lush rosette;
- Yucca filament - bush form with leaves up to 70 cm in length, withstands frosts to -20 ° C.
Indoor grow only the most compact varieties. But, nevertheless, they are rather large plants that are suitable only for greenhouses and spacious rooms:
- Yucca is elephant - has a wide trunk, thickened at the base, is unpretentious;
- Yucca Aloe with wide leathery leaves gathered in a spherical rosette.
Features of caring for yucca at home
As a houseplant, varieties are most often grown that in nature are accustomed to an arid climate and an abundance of sun. Such specimens endure temperature fluctuations, are not afraid of dry room air, are unpretentious to the composition of the soil.
And yet, such a hardy plant has weaknesses. For Yucca, the main danger is over watering, especially when combined with cold indoor air.
Doubting whether it is necessary to water the yucca, it is better for the grower to postpone the procedure for a day or two. The plant will endure short-term thirst without any problems, but will immediately let you know about excess moisture.
The frequency of irrigation and the amount of irrigation moisture depends on:
- from the season;
- from temperature and humidity in the room or in the garden where the plant is taken out during the summer months;
- from the size of a flower of a room yucca, as in the photo;
- on the volume of the pot and on the ability of the soil to evaporate water.
From spring to autumn, the soil is moistened often and abundantly as the substrate dries to a depth of 2-5 cm. Then, watering becomes less frequent and stingier. The colder the room, the less water the plant consumes. Therefore, care for yucca at home is constantly being adjusted. Irrigation moisture must not penetrate inside the leaf outlet. It is better not to fill the water between the trunks closely growing in the same pot. In both cases, there is a risk of decay, which threatens with the loss of a flower.
Watering is combined with top dressing, which is carried out from spring to autumn. It is especially important to maintain the plant during flowering.
Yucca is not afraid of dry air, but to maintain the purity of the leaves and improve their breathing during hot weather, the crown can be wiped with a damp, well-wrung cloth. To avoid burns, after such a procedure, a yucca should not be taken out in the sun. It’s more correct to arrange “washing” the flower in the evening, because the crown will dry out well during the night.
Yucca loves light, warmth, but cannot stand the cold wind and draft. To facilitate flower care at home, yucca find a place on the south window.
Large specimens are placed near the window. Such penumbra also like plants. The main thing is that direct sunlight hit the crown for at least three hours a day, and the plant does not suffer from excessive dampness. In summer, the pot is taken out onto the balcony or porch. If the year is warm and the owner of the flower is not afraid of its growth, then the yucca can be planted in the ground.
How to transplant yucca at home?
A transplant for yucca, as for other indoor crops, is a serious stress. Therefore, it is worth carrying out such a procedure in two cases:
- when the root system has grown so much that it occupied the entire pot, leaving no room under the ground;
- when a plant needs urgent help due to rotting of roots or other mistakes made when caring for yucca at home.
In the first case, small plants are transferred into a pot of a slightly larger diameter, in which drainage is preliminarily poured. Empty spaces are filled with fresh substrate, simultaneously updating the top layer of the old soil.
But how to plant a room yucca, in the photo, and care for it, if the plant so takes up a lot of space, and the owner does not want to allow further growth?
To limit growth, do not change the pot. And before transplanting yucca at home, the root system of the plant is cut with a clean sharp knife about a quarter. Places of cuts are treated with ground charcoal. New drainage and soil are poured into the pot. And then a plant is planted. Be sure to pour fresh substrate on top. The annual backfilling of new soil is also limited in situations where the plant is already too large for transplanting.
After transplanting, the yucca is not watered at all for two days, and then the soil begins to be moistened very carefully and moderately, waiting for the surface to dry.
Yucca grows well in a ready-made purchased substrate, but you can make the soil yourself by mixing sand and sheet soil in equal proportions. To provide food, they add half the amount of humus to them.
Propagation of yucca at home
As it grows, the yucca trunk is exposed, and it becomes like a room palm. The higher the tree becomes, the faster it loses its decorative effect. Keeping and caring for him is all the more problematic. How to return the plant to an acceptable size and former attractiveness?
It turns out that if you cut off the top of the yucca with a bunch of leaves and trunk fragments of at least 10 cm, then you can rejuvenate the old plant and get a new one. At the same time, taking care of the yucca "palm tree" in the photo at home is not at all difficult.
The operation is carried out in the spring, when the growth period begins. Pre-plant well watered. And after a couple of days, the top of a yucca is cut off with a sharp knife. The remaining stump can be trimmed, leaving the desired height. When the wet section dries a little, it is treated with garden var.
The pot is transferred from the shadow, where the plant will spend about two months. In this case, the yucca does not need to be watered. Without a crown, a plant cannot consume water, which only becomes a source of disease and rot.
In the warmth on the stem of the yucca, the kidneys that were sleeping before this will soon become noticeable. When new leaf rosettes develop from them, the plant is transferred to the light and begin the usual care of yucca at home.
The top is not thrown away, as it is a great planting material for the quick propagation of yucca at home. The lower leaves from the top are gently torn off, and then the stalk is dripped in wet sand, covered with a bag or film and put in heat. It takes no more than a month to root, and then the top with its own roots is transferred to the pot, where the yucca will have to grow further.
Lighting and temperature
The plant needs direct sunlight. Daylight hours should be 12 hours or more, most of the time the yucca should be in direct sunlight. It is best to place a false palm on the windowsill of the south or south-west direction.
Young specimens, unlike adults, are more sensitive to direct sun. It is recommended to shade them on hot days so that burns do not form on the leaves.
Gradually, the plant gets used to the rays of the sun and already at 3 years of age is not afraid of them. In winter, in a temperate climate, there is little light for yucca. So that the shoots do not stretch and do not weaken, it is illuminated with phytolamps. Daylight hours in winter should be at least 14 hours.
Comfortable temperature for growing yucca during the period of growth and flowering is 20-25 ° C. The plant easily tolerates a higher temperature. But you should not test it for strength.
If the temperature in the room rises above 30 ° C, you need to water more often.
In winter, a cold rest period is necessary for yucca. At this time, it is necessary to ensure a stable room temperature of 8-10 ° C. This helps to reduce the growth rate and bud budding. The palm should be protected from sudden changes in temperature and cold drafts.
Watering and spraying
Yucca, like all succulents, must be watered regularly, but in moderation. In the heat of summer, it requires good soil moisture. But the next watering is carried out only when the earthen lump is completely dry. In the summer, watered weekly, controlling the soil moisture.
In winter, yucca is watered much less frequently. This procedure is carried out depending on the air temperature and the drying rate of the soil. Watered 1 time in 2 weeks or less often - monthly. It is important that in winter the soil between irrigation has time to completely dry out.
Hardness of water for irrigation does not matter. Its temperature should be several degrees higher than air temperature. Yucca is not demanding for air humidity. It grows well in a dry atmosphere.
Very high humidity is undesirable for her. It can lead to rotting of stems and shoots.
At a very high temperature (above 30 ° C), the plant may not have enough moisture in the soil, its leaves will begin to dry out. To prevent this from happening, it is recommended to spray daily with warm boiled water. Do this carefully so that water does not get into the axils of the leaves. When the air temperature drops below 30 ° C, spraying is stopped.
Soil and fertilizer
To grow yucca, you need light, water and breathable soil so that it does not stay wet for a long time. Its nutritional value does not really matter, but it should not contain too much organic matter. The soil reaction can be neutral or slightly acidic.
Soil can be purchased at flower shops or garden centers. The composition of this plant is suitable soil mixtures for palm trees, dracaena and succulents.
If you need to mix the soil yourself, then you need to know the age of the plant that will be planted in it. For young specimens up to 3 years old, the following soil composition will be best:
- Sheet earth - 2 parts;
- Sod land - 2 parts;
- Coarse sand or other baking powder - 2 parts;
- Humus - 1 part.
Adult plants do not require humus. For them, the following components are taken in equal proportions: leaf soil, turf land and baking powder.
To preserve the beautiful appearance of the yucca, it is necessary to feed from the beginning of April to mid-autumn.
Without this, she loses leaves, her shoots are very bare. Mineral fertilizers for palm trees or succulents are used for top dressing. Purchased fertilizers are diluted with water in accordance with the instructions.
Then they are applied to moist soil every 2 weeks. To do this, first carry out the main watering so that the earth is saturated with moisture. Then water the plants with diluted fertilizers.
Caring for a room palm Yucca at home is quite easy. She is undemanding to the conditions of detention, and the mistakes of inexperienced gardeners, as a rule, do not affect her health and appearance. However, gross errors in caring for a Yucca flower can cause serious problems at home. But in most cases they are eliminated by correcting the conditions of the plant.
Here are some problems that arise when growing yucca and how to solve them:
- Yellowing leaves occurs due to a sharp decrease or sharp increase in temperature, as well as prolonged exposure to the plant heat and cold. The resumption of the correct temperature regime will stop the formation of yellow leaves, but already yellowed leaves will not recover;
- Leaves folded both from inadequate watering, and from excessive soil moisture. It is necessary to adjust watering, water regularly with drying out the soil;
- Leaf tips dry indicates a lack of moisture in the soil or in the air. If the correct watering mode is set, it is necessary to slightly increase the air humidity;
- Stretching shoots and blanching of the leaves is due to insufficient lighting. It is necessary to rearrange the plant in a more lighted place or to illuminate with phytolamps;
- Leaf wilt and trunk softening occurs as a result of damage to the plant by stem or root rot. These diseases develop only in a humid environment. Proper watering will ensure plant health.
Sometimes Yucca is attacked by harmful insects. This happens rarely and only if the plant is taken out to the garden for the summer.
False palm suffers from the following types:
- Spider mite;
If insects are found, it is necessary to conduct insecticide treatment. Sometimes you have to repeat it after 10 days, if not all pests are destroyed.
Fertilizing and fertilizer care
Caring for a yucca at home includes the introduction of timely top-dressing and fertilizer into the soil.
In the spring and summer (active growth) the flower is watered with water-soluble fertilizers with a complex compositionintended for indoor plants.
Regularity - once every 15-20 days.
On a note! It is recommended to alternate organic and mineral fertilizers. In autumn, top dressing is not carried out.
- For seeds, after the appearance of the first two leaves - nitrophoska at the rate of 1 g per 1 liter of water.
- For potted plants, for the formation of a leaf outlet - the Belarusian product “Peat Oxidate”, liquid mineral top dressing: Biopon, Activin, Flower Paradise. Organic complexes: Absolute, Umbrella, Gumisol-M.
- For street adult yucca potassium and phosphorus are necessary, therefore, mineral dressing is chosen with a high content of these substances.
Fertilize flowers growing in open ground with an organic solution of mullein, bird droppings, humus leaf. The plant responds well to granulated horse manure "Orgavit".
When can and how to transplant?
Yucca is transplanted into another pot at home as the flower needs and grows, but not more often than once every 1-2 years. This allows:
- increase the amount of nutrients by replacing or adding soil;
- transplant into a larger pot if the old yucca no longer fits;
- Inspect the root system for rot or disease.
The procedure is carried out in early spring, rarely in the fall.
For transplantation, the transshipment method is used, it occurs according to the following scheme:
- A pot is prepared in advance, which is 3-5 cm larger than the root system of the flower. A drainage layer is laid on the bottom and sprinkled with a small layer of soil.
- An hour before the transplant, the yucca is watered so that the soil softens and the flower can be reached without damage.
- The flower pot is crossed to one side and gently pulling it out along with a lump of earth.
If the plant is healthy, there are no rotten, dry or flowering roots, then it is immediately placed in the center in a new pot. An empty gap on the sides and the distance to the edge of the pot are covered with fresh substrate and pressed.
Watering the flower begins only after 2-3 days, in small portions.
It is important not to add nutritional supplements in the first month after transplantation. If damaged or diseased roots are found, then they are cut with a sharp garden secateurs. Then the sections are sprinkled with chopped charcoal. After this, transplanted into a new pot.
Transplanting a yucca grown in a garden is rare. Basically, this procedure is carried out to divide the bush, if the bush has thickened. In one place, a flower can grow from 15 to 20 years. Transplant time is spring or end of summer - beginning of autumn.
On a note! The optimal age of the yucca for transplanting is up to 3 years, until the root system has grown strongly, otherwise there is a danger of damaging the tubers. The length of the roots of an adult plant reaches 60-70 cm.
How to plant a garden flower:
- they dig in the soil at a distance of 20-25 cm from the mother stem to get daughter sockets;
- lumps of earth from the roots are not removed, but so that it does not crumble when transferred to another place, the processes are laid on burlap or polyethylene;
- young shoots are transplanted into pre-prepared pits, at the bottom of which drainage, deciduous compost and turf soil are laid;
- shoot with a root set in the center of the pit and cover the remaining space with free space.
The first complex feeding is done no earlier than after 14-16 days. Watered, like an adult plant.
Yucca is a beautiful ornamental plant that can grow both at home and in the open ground.
Unpretentious care and low watering, made the flower popular among gardeners.
- Type of plant: Decorative.
- Flower / fruit color: Pale pink, white, purple. Seeds are black.
- Leaf color: Dark green, some varieties with white or yellow stripes.
- Need for sun: Loves the sun.
- The size: Medium and large, depending on grade.
- Bloom: Garden blooms, home - rarely. It blooms in late spring - early summer.
- Scent: Strong, fragrant, reminiscent of the perfume of an expensive soap.
If desired, yucca can be grown from seeds. To do this, freshly picked seeds are sown in a substrate consisting of turf and leaf soil, as well as sand, which are taken in equal parts. Crops should be systematically watered, ventilated, and condensate must be removed from the surface of the shelter. The first seedlings should appear after about one month. After the shoots have grown and strengthened, they will need to be peaked in individual pots, in diameter reaching about 60 mm. Then they begin to gradually accustom them to the same care that an adult plant needs. After 12 months, the plants will need transshipment into larger pots (20-30 mm in diameter larger than the previous ones).
Propagation by a segment of the trunk
Since at home such a plant grows very much, it is propagated by a segment of the trunk, if there is such a need. In summer, several parts need to be cut from the trunk, while in length they should reach more than 20 centimeters. Segments are planted for rooting in a slightly moistened soil mixture consisting of peat and sand, while the cut should be at the bottom. Then the box is transferred to the street in a shaded place. On the parent bush, all places of the slices are covered with garden var. The planted segments must be covered with a film on top, it will help maintain the necessary level of air humidity, while the air temperature should be from 20 to 24 degrees. Make sure that the soil mixture is slightly moist at all times. Rooting of the segments will occur after 4-8 weeks.
For propagation of such a plant, apical cuttings are also used. With a very sharp tool, cut off the upper part of the plant, while the places of the cuts are treated with carbon powder. The cuttings must be left for 2 hours in the open air, so that the places of cuts have time to dry. Then it is planted for rooting in moistened sand or placed in a container with boiled water. When rooting cuttings in water, a piece of charcoal is placed in the container, it should protect the pieces from bacteria. Before the roots appear, rot may appear on the lower leaf plates. If this happens, then the leaves are removed and the water in the container is changed. After the roots grow, the stalk is planted in a pot filled with soil mixture.
What problems may arise with Yucca
- If this happens in winter, then the air temperature is too high for the plant.
- If the stems are pulled up during this process, then the culture has little light.
- Leaflets turn yellow from excess moisture.
- Such a yucca reaction can occur to a sudden change in temperature or a draft.
Leaflets are folded
- This change is characteristic of an excess of moisture or lack. In this case, you need to pay attention to the soil. She dries out in about a week.
- Cold water during irrigation contributes to folding leaves. The liquid should be at room temperature.
The tips of the leaves dry out
- Dry indoor air.
- High temperature in the room.
- Lack of moisture.
Also check out the article on growing Achimenes.
The stems are stretched, and the leaves are pale
There is one reason - insufficient lighting. To eliminate it, you need to change the location of the yucca. If necessary, put additional artificial lighting for the flower.
Leaflets fall away
- Adverse conditions for the plant. These may include: excess fluid in the soil, lack of moisture, dry air, hot temperature.
- A reaction may occur to a lack of light. The plant loves plentiful lighting. The pot should be rearranged closer to the southern part of the window, or think of a way to artificially illuminate the flower.
The leaves wilted, the trunk became soft
The roots rotted due to an excess of water in the ground. It is unlikely that such a culture will be able to revive. The only way could be to cut the top of the plant for rooting. There are not many chances to recover, but it's worth a try.
|Symptom (what happens to the leaves)||Disease / Pest||Treatment|
|Are dry.||Regular watering, spraying plants and humidifying the air in the room.|
|Turn yellow.||This is a natural process. Leaves live a couple of years, then turn yellow and die.||No treatment required.|
|Fall off.||Observe watering, provide heat and close windows.|
|Light spots form on them.||Too much light.||Observe the light mode.|
|Twisted into a tube.||The reason is hypothermia.||Adjust the room temperature.|
|Dark spots appear on them.||Remove the fallen leaves and spray the plant with fungicide. Watering cut.|
|Turn pale and stretch.||Observe thermal and light conditions.|
|Pests are visible on them: ticks, aphids and caterpillars.||Excessive watering.||Spray with insecticides.|
How to care for yucca in winter?
Yucca garden plant is fully resistant to frost. However, in regions with cold climatic conditions, these heat-loving garden flowers require shelter - in the suburbs, as a rule, for the winter you need to cover the yucca with cover material:
- cardboard mulch,
- thick box
Sheltered for wintering yucca, in spring it will have a pleasant and healthy green color. Before winter, you can collect the entire rosette of leaves and freely tie a rope on top. After the last frosts, the rope is untied, freeing the leaves, usually at the turn of March-April.
It is necessary to monitor the plant, sometimes rotten leaves tied together can rot.
How the yucca hibernates depends on proper shelter. In winter, plant damage occurs mainly due to excess water in the ground, and the plant rots.
Why is yucca not blooming?
It may happen that the plant does not bloom and loses most of the charm. Find out what needs to be done so that the plant finally blooms. Certain requirements must be observed. The reasons for the lack of flowering are listed below.
- The plant grows on poor soil. Yucca loves fertile and permeable soils. If you plant a bush in a place with heavy, moist and cold soil, it will not bloom. At the same time, perennial prefers alkaline soil reaction. It is worth supporting it by deoxidizing the substrate with chalk or dolomite. As a fertilizer for yucca, wood ash works well, saturating the soil with calcium.
- Too little sun. Only in the sunlit position does the plant bloom. In a shady position, flowering becomes weaker or completely stops.
- Cold. The landing site should be warm, sunny, secluded and protected from the winds. Yucca is moderately hardy, withstands frost, but it’s best to protect her at the ward. Proper plant protection for the winter, covering with agrotextile or coniferous branches, will protect against low temperatures.
- Lack of top dressing. At the beginning of the growing season, the perennial should receive the first dose of a multicomponent mixture of fertilizers, the next dose is introduced by mid-June. Fertilizers with trace elements ensure proper growth and lush flowering. It is good to combine high pH wood ash with compost. So it turns out natural fertilizer enriched in phosphorus, potassium, calcium
The most popular varieties:
- Glorious Yucca or Gloriosa (Yucca gloriosa L.). Gloriosa forms a short stem, grows up to 1 meter in height. The leaves are very narrow, about half a meter long. From July to September it blooms with cream-white panicle inflorescences, often with red veins up to 2 meters long. Grows wild in Europe in the Mediterranean
- Aloeelistic (Yucca aloifolia) Yucca is even easier to grow. This is a very common species. Its leaves are pointed, lanceolate, stiff, grow up to 150 centimeters in length. The species grows very slowly, but in a pot it can reach several meters in height. In the natural environment they produce fleshy, edible fruits. Old plants from August to September are covered with cream-white flowers with a green or red-blue base. Aloifolia withstands small frosts. Therefore, they can grow on a balcony or terrace all season.
- Short-leaved (yucca brevifolia) refers to common plants in the desert regions of the Gulf of California. In nature, it reaches 20 meters in height, the trunk reaches more than 1 meter in diameter. Potted plants are much smaller and form branching shrubs or deciduous trees.
- Giant yucca (yucca elephantipes) - the variety can also be grown in a pot. The plant is native to Mexico and Guatemala, where it is called defenseless. After a few years, the flower forms a stalk thickened at the root. In nature, stem-forming stems grow from an expanded base to a height of 13 meters and branch with age. They end with a rosette of shiny, green color, with wide edges and a soft end of the leaves, up to 10 centimeters wide and up to a meter long. This is a plant with very delicate leaves. A train of long and narrow leaves crowns him. It is a thermophilic variety grown in containers in rooms. The plant should grow in large pots, it is tall and wide. Varieties of giant yuki are known, called variegates or marginates. Variety variegata (marginata) has bicolor leaves.
As you can see from this article, caring for a yucca at home is very simple. This genus of plants is unpretentious and has strong immunity, so that practically no problems arise with it. Therefore, if you want something exotic, elegant and at the same time simple, then yucca will be an ideal choice as a houseplant, which will be an excellent decoration for the interior of your home or garden.
And finally, I would like to note that plants are also living organisms that need constant comfortable conditions for healthy growth.