Hemanthus - 5 species with photos, features of cultivation and care
Hemanthus (deer tongue) is a poisonous bulbous plant, a distant relative of amaryllis. The flower perfectly takes root in hot climates, but does not tolerate rains, so when growing it on the open ground, difficulties arise.
In a pot, the hemanthus, whose photo is worthy of the covers of glossy magazines, behaves less capriciously, but it all depends on the care and the specific variety.
In nature, there are several types of hemanthusBut at home, flower growers grow only a few: caring for a flower at home is complicated.
Luxurious plant with huge flat leaves, slightly curling down. Large white flowers with yellow stamens are located on short peduncles, not more than 25 cm high. The leaves are glossy, light green.
When flowering, the white-flowered hemanthus resembles a ball. Blooms in spring, flowering time from 2 to 3 months.
An annual plant with unusual red-yellow, almost orange flowers. The bulb is large, approximately 8–9 cm in diameter. The leaves are fleshy, green, up to 30 cm long.
Flowers are a multitude of elongated pistils gathered in a single unit, surrounded by a series of small red petals, almost invisible under a fluffy mass.
The plant blooms in summer, flowering lasts until the beginning of autumn.
The leaves are thin, elongated, on each stem 3-5 or more inflorescences reaching a diameter of 20 cm. Pistils and stamens are bright red. The bulb is large, but not more than 7–8 cm in diameter. Flowering begins in late summer, from August to September its peak occurs.
The most beautiful representative of the family for the garden. The leaves are green, with many veins. The cuttings are short, the stem itself is high, reaches 0.8 m in height. Pestles are collected in a red, crimson or pink ball. Flowering begins in the spring.
Unusual plant with large bright green leaves (sometimes reach a length of 0.5 m). Anthers are large, orange or red-yellow. Inflorescences are red. Flowering is short-term, mainly in the fall.
The plant is capricious, therefore it is not possible to decorate the garden with flowers every year.
Hemanthus care at home
To grow a beautiful hemanthus at home is quite possible, but for this it is better to take care in advance of suitable lighting, a flowerpot, fertilizers and ways to maintain the necessary flower moisture.
Deer Tongue Lighting
Hemanthus needs a lot of light, but it is forbidden to put a flower on the southern windowsills. The ideal location is windows facing east.
If the plant is exposed to direct sunlight, it will wilt, the leaves become thinner, their tips dry out. In the garden, a deer tongue is planted next to tall plants that protect it from the sun.
Temperature regime for hemanthus
The choice of temperature depends on the season and phase of plant growth. In spring and summer, the room temperature should not exceed 22 ... 23 ° C.
In the cold season, the deer tongue pot is moved to a room with a temperature of no higher than 15 ° C. For some varieties, the optimum temperature is not exceeding 10 ... 12 ° C (in winter).
Important! Sudden changes in temperature are harmful to the plant. You need to buy hemanthus only in spring or summer, otherwise it may not endure the climate change and die.
Watering and humidity for hemanthus
In relation to this plant, the principle "better than underfill than overflow" works. The flower is watered only after complete drying of the upper soil layer. With excess moisture, the hemanthus dies.
Holes must be provided in the pot through which excess moisture can escape. When watering, they use settled water at room temperature.
Deer tongue is often sprayed (every other day). When dust appears on the leaves, they are wiped with a damp terry cloth. In autumn, the flower can also be placed on the windowsills, under which there is a heating element. In winter, the amount of rubbing and spraying is reduced.
In the spring, when the hemanthus enters the active phase of growth, it needs to be fed. Once every 3 weeks, starting in March, fertilizers are applied to the soil, mainly phosphorus and potassium. It is allowed to use liquid top dressing intended for plants from the amaryllis family.
Important! During dormancy, hemanthus is not fed. It is harmful to fertilize a pot with a young plant whose leaves have not yet reached a length of 10-12 cm.
Deer Tongue Transplant
The soil in a pot with a deer tongue is changed once a year, regardless of the growth rate of the plant. Land renewal has a positive effect on the flower. The deadline is 1 time in 3 years.
Pots choose shallow but large in diameter. Transplanted like this:
- A suitable pot is selected, its bottom is covered with drainage.
- A thin soil layer of greenhouse, deciduous and woody land, as well as bone meal and peat, is laid on top of the drainage.
- 4-5 cm recede from the edge of the pot and plant a plant.
You can add a little humus to the ground. Suitable soil is sold in flower shops.
Hemanthus propagates in three different ways:
- by seeds;
The latter option is the most time-consuming.
Propagation using daughter bulbs
As the plants grow, daughter plants appear on the main maternal bulb. Usually there are 1–2 on each bush. To propagate hemanthus, it is enough:
- get it out of the pot;
- free the bulb from the earthen coma;
- to separate the baby from the main bulb, trying not to damage;
- transplant the baby into a separate pot;
- to look after the same as the mother plant (with the exception of feeding - young flowers in the first year of life almost do not feed).
It is convenient to propagate with bulbs, but the method is not suitable for gardeners, who hope that by the end of the first year after transplanting, the hemanthus will delight in flowers. The plant grown from the bulb blooms only after 3-4 years.
Planting material can be purchased at the store or made independently by collecting seeds from flowers. Seed germination is lost over time.
The main disadvantage of growing hemanthus in this way is to postpone flowering for a long period. A plant grown from a seed blooms only 6–7 years after sowing.
Sow seeds at a distance of 3-4 cm from each other. The container can be taken flat, with a side height of 5–8 cm. Seeds are buried to a depth of 1–2 cm.
The ground is sprayed from above, after which the container is covered with a bag with holes through which the sprouts will pass. Every day, the package must be removed for 1-2 hours. If necessary, moisten the dried earth.
After the first green leaves appear above the surface of the earth, the packet is completely removed, leaving the plant open.
Propagation by leaf cuttings
The most difficult is to propagate the hemanthus by cuttings. To obtain planting material from a beautiful and apparently healthy plant, lower leaves are cut with a knife or secateurs and placed in a container with water for 1-2 days (the fracture site is treated with a potassium permanganate solution).
The tip of the leaf should be immersed in water no more than 2 cm.
The leaf is planted in the prepared soil mixture. Suitable land intended for bulbs. The soil must be constantly moist. To do this, the sheet and soil are regularly sprayed (1 time in 2 days). After the appearance of the bulbs, the plant is transplanted, freeing from old soil.
Propagated by cuttings, hemanthus bloom 3-4 years after rooting of the leaf.
Hemanthus Care Mistakes
Improper content affects the frequency of flowering, provokes drying of leaves, rotting bulbs.
Why does hemanthus not bloom, what to do
If the hemanthus does not bloom, check:
- Is the temperature observed? The air temperature should not fall below 23 ° C in the summer and 10 ° C in the winter.
- Has the soil layer hardened from watering? Periodically, about 1 time in 1-2 months, the soil under the plant is mulched.
- Is the warm water used for irrigation sufficient? Water from the tap is upheld, if possible, then watered with rain water.
- Has the fertilizer schedule been shifted? In spring and summer, hemanthus is constantly fertilized.
Deer tongue may not bloomif he is too young or the container in which he is grown is not suitable for him: an excessively large pot is a frequent reason for the lack of flowers.
If the hemanthus is not allowed to rest in the winter (rest period), then there is a likelihood that there will be no flowering.
Why do leaves of hemanthus turn yellow
Withered and yellowed leaves indicate that the plant is being transfused. Both watering and spraying should be moderate. Sometimes yellowness is manifested due to the defeat of the deer tongue with black rot.
To avoid the death of a flower, watering is stopped or reduced to a minimum, in a flower shop they acquire funds that help get rid of the disease.
Sometimes the leaves of the plant begin to turn yellow in the fall. In this case, there is no cause for concern. Most likely, the hemanthus is preparing for winter.
Burns on the leaves, faded flowers
Burns appear on the leaves of those plants that are in the sun and are not protected from its rays. Flowers fade for the same reason, but sometimes fading provokes a scab.
If the humidity in the room is high, and the temperature is low, it is likely that the buds will turn black and fall off before flowering. To avoid this, the hemanthus is moved to a warmer room, watering is temporarily stopped.
There may be several reasons for the slow growth of a flower:
- lack of mineral fertilizers;
As a solution to the problem, you can try:
- Spray the plant with soap and water.
- Change the topsoil, since it is in it that most of the pests are concentrated.
The bulb can be treated with a special solution to stimulate growth.
Lack of bulb growth one month after planting
If the first leaves did not appear from the little baby planted in the ground 1 month after planting, then the plant can be thrown away. Possible reasons for the lack of growth:
- Insufficient resting period of an adult plant, because of which it could not gain the necessary strength for growth.
- Incorrectly selected temperature conditions.
- Significant dryness or humidity.
Important! If the young plant was fed earlier than it should be, then it can also die, as soon as the first leaves appeared.
Pests and diseases of hemanthus
Hemanthus rarely get sickbut if there are other plants nearby, there is a high risk that they will become infected by them. Parasitic midges, bugs and worms start up in the soil due to improper transplantation and insufficient attention to soil quality.
Most often, hemanthus are affected:
- Scaffolds. If brown plaques appear on the lower surface of the stems and leaves, you need to treat the plant from scutes. These insects feed on plant juices, which causes the leaves to dry out and buds to fall. Leaves turn pale, flowers lose most of their brightness. The scabbard is mechanically removed from the surface of the leaf plate and the stem, using a cotton swab or disk for this. If the pest has settled in inflorescences, the plants are sprayed with insecticides. Do it in the warm season.
- Amaryllis worm. If white insects with elongated bodies are found in the soil, you need to stock up with liquid insecticides. Affected by the worm, the plant withers and dies. In some cases, the appearance of the pest is accompanied by infection of the hemanthus with sooty fungi. Bulbs damaged by the worm are disposed of without attempting to heal.
- Anthracnosis. Fungal disease is provoked by high humidity and air temperature. The leaves of the diseased plant become spotty, dark brown streaks appear on the tips. The affected leaves are removed, the deer tongue is treated with a systemic fungicide (1 l of water per 2 g of fungicide). The room is often aired, the number of waterings is reduced.
- Staganospore (red burn). Red spots on the bulb are a clear sign of infection. As the disease develops, spots spread to the leaves. Until this happens, the grower should treat the hemanthus with Fundazol (1 liter of water and 2 g of the drug). If the flower is severely affected, mix 100 g of chalk, 5 g of copper sulfate and 10 g of adhesive OP-7, fill it all with water (2.5 cups), coat the bulb and the lower part of the plants.
Hematus is an amazingly beautiful and extremely capricious houseplant, it requires increased attention to watering, temperature and humidity conditions. Lack of moisture leads to drying out of the bulb, its excess harms the leaves.
Sometimes the plant is affected by scale insects, amaryllis worms and fungal diseases. Only transplantation or insecticide treatment can help.