Features of determinant varieties of tomatoes: what is it and how to care for them?
In annotations on bags with tomato seeds, you can sometimes read: "plant determinant" or "superdeterminant. When growing such varieties there are features. They will be discussed in this article.
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What is included in the concept of a determinant variety
A determinant is a concept from linear algebra. Its literal translation means "qualifier".
In relation to plants, the name determinant means - definite. Rthe plant stop stops with the appearance of a flower brush at the top.
For gardeners who do not seek the industrial scale of growing tomatoes, they want an early harvest - determinant tomatoes are the perfect choice.
If the task is to get as many fruits as possible - the choice is for indeterminate (unlimited in growth) varieties.
Find out more from the video below:
The main differences between determinant and indeterminate and other tomatoes
Sometimes sellers of seeds indicate in the annotation: stunted, medium tall, or tall. This definition is erroneous and misleading inexperienced gardeners. Among indeterminate varieties there are undersized. Determinant tomatoes, bred specifically for growing in greenhouses, have a high stem.
The main difference is not the height of the plant, but its development during the formation of flower brushes. Indeterminate tomatoes grow up and bear fruit throughout the season. The determinants have the peculiarity of stopping in growth when a certain amount of inflorescences is formed.
What is the difference between seeds
When choosing seeds, you should pay attention to the manufacturer's instructions - a pure variety or hybrid.
Hybrids should be preferred. They have a large yield and precocity, resistance to disease.
Better adapt to changes in climatic conditions. The most important thing is to determine the timing of sowing.
In different regions, seed planting is carried out at different times. For the middle band, sowing dates:
- indeterminate tomatoes - early March;
- semi-determinant - mid-March;
- determinant - the end of March.
Feature! Seedlings differ in cotyledon ring height. In determinantal varieties, it extends only 1-2 centimeters, in indeterminate varieties it will be 4-5 centimeters.
Of great importance is the age of seedlings.
Determinant varieties are planted in a permanent place for 55-60 days after sowing. Non-determinants are ready for landing later - in 65–75 days.
By seedlings, the type of future bush is determined. On the determinant, the brush is tied with the appearance of the 5th or 6th sheet, on the indeterminate after 8-10. Some varieties of determinant tomatoes can be planted bypassing the seedling stage directly into the ground.
Adult bushes - differences
Various formation of tomato bushes. In the determinant type, the distance between the ovaries of 2 or 3 leaves, a brush is always formed on the top of the stem or shoot. In indeterminate varieties, this distance is always exactly three sheets.
Types of Determinant Varieties and Hybrids
Conventionally, they are divided into four types. They differ in growth, the number of flower brushes, ripening and yield.
Due to the fact that this species has mixed properties, it is sometimes confused with indeterminate varieties. Height from 1.5 to 2 m allows more efficient use of the area of greenhouses, Garter must be done.
The first inflorescence appears after 7-8 leaves on the main stem and 3-5 on the lateral. The brushes are usually tied from 10 to 12, after which the central stem stops growing. The following brushes are laid in 2, rarely - 3 sheets.
Advantages of this type: high resistance to diseases, productivity and excellent quality of fruits.
Semi-determinant varieties and hybrids are intended mainly for growing in greenhouses. Find out which varieties are suitable for greenhouses.
Interesting! Common varieties are Eagle's Beak, Monomakh Hat, Gravity Hybrid.
Differ in fleshy leaves and a dense short stalk.
The bookmark of flower brushes is similar to semi-determinant plants, but the formation of the first begins after 6-7 leaves.
Growth stops after the appearance of 5-6 shoots with brushes. Brushes form 6-8 fruits.
Bushes are stunted - up to 1 meter in height. These are usually early-ripening and mid-ripening varieties and hybrids.
Compensates for low productivity compared with indeterminate varieties, high planting density - from 1 to 6 bushes can be planted per 1 square meter.
The first two brushes - leave 3-4 fruits. Remove all deformed ovaries.
Interesting! Popular: May early, Olya F1, Honey Spas.
Early varieties and hybrids. Flower brushes grow in 1-2 leaves. They are formed after the first 6-7 sheets. The upper brush, limiting the growth of the plant appears after the development of 4-5 brushes on the stem at a height of up to 0.5 m. Do not require pinching and tying.
Note! The most common: Hybrids varieties White bulk, Siberian precocious, Agate.
Early and ultra-ripe dwarf varieties with a strong stem. Lay 2-3 inflorescences, without waiting for intermediate leaves. The first brush may appear after 3 sheets.
3-4 brushes are formed, then growth stops. Height 30-35cm. Shrub formation is not required. Usually planted in open ground. Leaving is minimal.
Interesting! Crop dwarfs: Supercloud, Red Pearl, Gigolo.
- early maturity, thanks to the early laying of flower brushes;
- the simultaneous formation of several brushes gives a friendly return on the crop;
- do not require complex structures, high supports and complex maintenance;
- simple pinching and bush formation;
- the possibility of growing in open ground and unheated greenhouses.
Compared to indeterminate plants:
- lower productivity due to the limited number of flower brushes;
- it is irrational to use in high greenhouses;
- require additional feeding.
The best determinant varieties of tomatoes
One of the most unpretentious and tasty mid-early large-fruited varieties. Attractive shape, raspberry color. The fruits are stored for a long time and ripen well. Tall. Grown in a greenhouse and open ground. Resistant to frost. Non-dusting.
Unpretentious, proven and reliable mid-season variety. Sweet fruits of a classic heart-shaped form when ripe are colored in orange. It easily tolerates temperature changes. Tall, requires garters to support. When grown in open ground, most fruits ripen on the vine. From the fruits get a very tasty juice.
Promising early ripe determinant variety. The fruits are large, dark red. Taste is excellent. Requires garter and pinching to increase the size of the fruit and accelerate fruiting.
Mid early variety. Outdoor cultivation is recommended in southern areas. The bush is compact, medium-branched. Resistant to overriding and mechanical damage. Used for canning and obtaining juice. Fruits of medium size are orange-red. No stepsoning and garter. Resistant to gall nematode.
Hybrid for open ground and light greenhouses. Mid-season, tall. Resistant to disease and temperature changes. In all weather conditions gives a lot of fruit. Shade tolerant. Red medium-sized fruits last up to 2 months. Garter and bush formation are required.
For open ground
Very early, 30-60 cm high. The fruit is round, slightly ribbed red. Resistant to cracking. It develops well and bears fruit in low light and low temperature. More about tomato "Sanka"
You can plant directly in the ground, bypassing the seedling stage. In the south, the fruits ripen in early summer, in the north - in mid-July. The period from planting to ripening is 85 days. The variety is resistant to disease. Fruits do not tolerate transportation.
"Superbomb" Mid-season novelty for open ground. Resistant to weather changes. Requires enhanced feeding and pinching. Fruits are large, fleshy 5-6 in the brush. Gives a decent harvest in open ground.
Superdeterminant hybrid of tomatoes, can be grown without seedlings. Not afraid of frost and sudden changes in temperature. In greenhouses it grows poorly.
Early ripe. High resistance to disease. Large fruits with excellent taste and long shelf life. Requires garter.
"Spring North Hybrid"
Early ripe. The pinkish fruits are medium sized pink. The pulp is fleshy, juicy.
"Pride of Siberia"
Early ripe. Height up to 1.5 m. The fruits are very large. The variety is bred for greenhouses, but in the southern regions it can be grown in open ground .. Resistant to disease. Selected fruits with great taste.
Harvest promising early variety (vegetation 85 days). Resistant to late blight, powdery mildew. Fruits are large, good taste, cracking resistance. Universal in application.
One of the best varieties for growing in greenhouses. Plant height 65-75 cm. The bush must be tied up. The fruits of a long shelf life. The pulp is sweet, fleshy.
The main crop of determinant tomatoes are the fruits of the first 3 inflorescences. To accelerate maturation, small stepsons break off and pinch the shoots.
When the bush is formed, 1-2 lateral shoots are left near the main stem and they are tied under the first brush. 3-4 brushes are left on the central stem. 3 brushes are formed on the lateral shoot, after which it is pinched.
In the future, new shoots are formed to continue the growing season. In this case, timely top dressing is necessary.
Landing and care
After the appearance of the second or third leaf, they are planted in a permanent place. The soil by this time should warm up at least 15 degrees C.
Care is as follows:
- pinching, tying, if the variety requires it;
- weed removal:
- loosening of the earth;
- watering under the root of the bush, mulching;
- fertilizer, hilling;
- prevention and control of diseases and pests.
Possible mistakes when growing
- Planting varieties for greenhouses in open ground and vice versa.
- Wrong watering.
- During the formation of the bush, the tops were pinching and pinching at the wrong time
- Ignoring disease prevention.
- The formation of uneven ovaries, scrubbing the bush under weight, late blight of tomatoes, due to the fact that the bush is incorrectly tied.
- Growing in unventilated greenhouses leads to the cessation of pollination, empty flowers. At temperatures above +33 degrees, tomato pollen becomes sterile, and fruit setting does not occur. Non-pollinated varieties do not produce ovaries.
- Too dense landing.
- Excessive dressing.
Whether or not to cultivate determinant varieties depends on what kind of result you need to get.
Find out more from the video below: