Planting pepper on seedlings, how to plant seeds correctly
Along with tomatoes, peppers are the most popular crop that is grown in our country in seedlings. Preparation for cultivation begins in the winter, so that with the onset of warm days to plant seedlings in open ground or a greenhouse.
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In this article we will analyze the main nuances of growing pepper seedlings at home.
How to choose a suitable grade
The first thing that always starts growing any crop is the purchase of seeds. Unfortunately, Russia is a northern country with a predominantly cold climate. And choose any variety for planting does not work. It is necessary to take into account the climatic conditions of your region.
- For Siberia and the Urals Suitable Siberian Prince, Merchant, Pioneer, Siberian boots, Red bull.
- For Central Russia - Winnie the Pooh, Agapovsky, Mirage, Peanut.
- For the south Alesha Popovich, Barin, Maria, etc. will do.
ON A NOTE. Recommended growing regions are usually indicated on seed packaging.
Is it possible to take seeds for seedlings of purchased peppers?
Peppers can also be grown from the seeds of fruits purchased in a greengrocery. But you need to understand that there can be no guarantee of results. Seeds in packages that you buy at the store are selected and prepared. They germinate better and develop faster.
The second point - you will never know exactly the sort of fruit purchased in a vegetable store. Perhaps it is not at all suitable for cultivation in the conditions of Russia.
In general, if you want to get healthy seedlings, then buy seeds in bags. If you want to experiment or you are just curious, then you can select seeds from fruits purchased in the vegetable store.
How to prepare pepper seeds for planting?
Before sowing grains into the soil, it is necessary to carry out pre-sowing preparation of seeds. This is a mandatory process, which in the future will save you a lot of effort, time and money.
Sorting is needed to get rid of dummies and leave only strong and healthy grains. To do this, pour 2 teaspoons of salt in a glass of water and mix thoroughly. Pour the seeds into the water and wait 10 to 15 minutes. All sunken grains can be thrown away. They will not rise. Remove the rest from the water and dry.
Do pepper seeds need heat treatment?
Before you get to the store, the seeds are often stored in inappropriate temperature conditions. Therefore, some summer residents are advised to warm the planting material first.
It is very easy to do. 3-4 weeks before sowing, the seeds are laid out on thick cardboard and placed near the battery.
IMPORTANT! Do not place seeds directly on the radiator.
How to process planting material (pickling)
Unfortunately, the origin of many seeds is unknown. Therefore, among them, pests infected with fungi, bacteria or eggs can be caught. To get rid of infection and future problems with seedlings, etching (disinfection, disinfection) is carried out.
The most popular drugs are soda, hydrogen peroxide, common green, Phytosporin and Chlorhexedin.
The etching procedure is simple. A solution is prepared from water and the active substance. Grains are wrapped in cheesecloth and wetted with a solution. You can even just pour the solution in the saucer and pour the grains there.
Depending on the preparation, the period of stay of seeds in the solution varies from 30 minutes to a day. After dressing, the grains are washed with water and sown in the ground.
ON A NOTE. Potassium permanganate, although it remains the most popular etch agent, is significantly inferior to other drugs in its effectiveness.
Do I need to soak pepper seeds and how to do it?
The next step in the process of preparing pepper seeds for planting is soaking. The essence of the process is to soften the dense outer shell of the grains, destroy the compounds of essential oils and stimulate the sprout.
The soaking process is similar to pickling.
First, the active solution is prepared. The most effective remedies are hydrogen peroxide, aloe juice, store growth stimulants (for example, Zircon).
The grains are placed in gauze, a bandage, etc., moistened and covered with a second layer of rags. After that, everything is transferred to the container, covered with a lid and rearranged into heat for a day.
Periodically, the cloth should be moistened and ventilated. The next day, the grains are washed, dried and sown.
ON A NOTE. Some summer residents spend soaking in plain warm water without the addition of growth stimulants.
Read more about pickling and soaking pepper seeds in our article, “Soaking Pepper Seeds Before Planting, When and How to Soak?”.
Suitable timing for landing
In order for the peppers to become healthy and strong and give a plentiful harvest, you need to choose the right time for planting. The fact is that peppers will begin to bear fruit 100 to 160 days after planting, and seedlings will need to be planted in a permanent place at the age of 60 - 80 days.
Accordingly, at this point, the street should already be warm. If overexposed seedlings at home, then the seedlings will be extended, weakened and poorly tolerated transplant. If, on the contrary, it is too early to plant, then the seedlings will not have enough strength and health to take root well.
In Russia, pepper seeds for seedlings are planted:
- late January - mid February in the southern warm areas.
- at the end of February - early March in Central Russia;
- in the beginning of March in Siberia, the Volga region, in the Urals and in the Northwest region.
ON A NOTE. A specific sowing day is determined using the lunar calendar.
For more valuable advice on suitable planting dates for pepper seeds, see our article “Planting Peppers for Seedlings in 2020 on the Lunar Calendar”.
How to choose the right primer
The next important point is the selection of suitable soil. Land for growing seedlings of peppers should be light, nutritious and loose.
ON A NOTE. This is a general soil requirement for any seedlings.
For sowing, you can use the most common universal soil. It is sold in all hardware and flower shops, and sometimes it is even delivered to ordinary supermarkets. This soil meets all the requirements and is fully suitable for seedlings.
Some summer residents purchase specialized soil for peppers, tomatoes and eggplant. In fact, it is not much different from the universal. Sometimes there are slightly adjusted proportions of different components. But this is absolutely not critical.
The most experienced gardeners who grow seedlings not only for themselves, but also for sale, prepare the substrate on their own.
The proportions are as follows:
- 2 parts of humus;
- 1 part of river sand;
- 2 parts of peat.
All components can be bought at the store or prepared on their own. The substrate is thoroughly mixed and sieved. Then, disinfection is carried out using a solution of potassium permanganate or calcination in the oven.
How to grow in soil with hydrogel?
A hydrogel is a polymer that holds moisture. The advantage of its use is that seedlings will have to be watered less.
Hydrogel is sold dry. Before landing it will need to be prepared. For 1 liter of soil you need 200 ml of prepared hydrogel jelly. Both components are mixed, and pepper grains are sown in the prepared substrate.
The further cultivation process is no different from the classical method. The only difference is that seedlings will have to be watered much less frequently.
What to plant peppers for seedlings?
The third item to consider before sowing seeds is the container in which the seedlings will grow.
Traditionally, seeds are first sown in a common container (or container). It can be a wooden box, a box, a plastic container, etc.
The bottom line is that the seeds grow together, and then, upon reaching a certain age, the plants are planted in separate containers, that is, they pick.
Since picking is a rather painful process for any plant, some immediately sow the seeds in separate containers. For example, plastic or peat cups, cassettes with separate slots, etc.
The advantage of this method is that it is not necessary to pick. Disadvantages - repeatedly increasing costs and the fact that not all seeds germinate.
Which way to choose is up to you. Both methods are used universally.
How to plant pepper seeds step by step, different ways
Method 1. In the general box.
- We fill the soil in a common box and slightly moisten it.
- We place the grains at a distance of 2 cm in the grooves with the same depth.
- Sprinkle lightly on top of the ground (no more than 1.5 cm!) And moisturize again.
- Create a greenhouse. We close the container with glass, a bag, a transparent plastic lid.
- We put in a warm place, not lit by the sun.
- We periodically ventilate and moisten, not allowing the soil to dry out.
- After 10 to 15 days, the peppers emerge.
Method 2. In separate cups.
- We fill the soil, moisturize.
- We make a hole of 1.5 - 2 cm and place 2 grains.
- We add the seedling and moisten the soil.
- Further, as in method 1.
Method 3. In polyethylene diapers.
- We cut rectangles 15 into 20 from the packaging bags.
- We spread the diapers and pour 2 cm of soil.
- We plant seeds at a distance of 2 cm.
- Sprinkle with earth and cover with other polyethylene.
- We twist the tube and tie it with an elastic band.
- We put the bag in a common box.
- We moisten the soil and make a greenhouse as in the previous methods.
- Every 10 days we untwist and add soil.
Conditions necessary for seedlings of peppers and care features
So, the grains fell into the ground, and now it is time to wait for the first shoots to appear. In order for the seeds to sprout, and then the seedlings develop well and be healthy, you need to create the appropriate conditions. Consider the main parameters.
Until seedlings appear, you need to maintain the temperature at least 25 degrees. When shoots appear, boxes with seedlings are temporarily rearranged in a cooler place (temperature not higher than 18 degrees).
After 5 days, when all the seedlings have already appeared, the boxes are again rearranged into heat (22 - 25 degrees) and at this temperature they are kept until disembarkation.
Peppers need constant access to sunlight for at least 12 hours. Therefore, after the emergence of seedlings, they must be illuminated until the daylight hours increase.
The light should be bright, but diffused. This is especially important in the last weeks before planting, so that direct UV rays do not burn the leaves of the seedlings.
When to Dive Pepper Seedlings
If you sowed grain in a common box, then you have to pick a seedling.
The procedure is carried out at the time of the appearance of 3 true leaves of seedlings.
Work must be done carefully, avoiding damage to the roots. It is better to carry a lump of earth with the seedling.
REFERENCE. In the future, another transplant may be necessary, but it is carried out by the method of transshipment, simply adding the right amount of land to a new container.
Read more about picking peppers in our article "How to properly pick peppers".
Features of watering
Watering is carried out with warm, settled water as the soil dries. It is best to use melt or rain water. After watering, it is necessary to loosen the soil so that the water does not stagnate, the soil does not compact, and the roots receive air.
How to feed pepper seedlings
Pepper is fed twice.
First time after a pick. The fertilizer is prepared from 2 grams of potassium sulfate, 2 grams of urea, 6 grams of superphosphate and 1 liter of water. The consumption rate is half a glass per 1 seedling.
The second top dressing is carried out after 15 - 20 days. You can apply the same fertilizer by doubling the concentration of substances or purchase store-dressing (Agricola, Fortified, Gumi).
Read more about fertilizing seedlings of peppers in our article "Feeding seedlings of peppers than fertilizing at home."
How to harden pepper seedlings?
Depending on the prevailing weather, 1-2 weeks before transplanting peppers into the open ground, it is necessary to begin hardening seedlings.
Hardening is a procedure during which seedlings get used to new climatic conditions. Hardening is necessary so that peppers do not die in the very first days after planting.
The fact is that the air is warmer at home, there are no drafts and the sun is not so bright. Therefore, seedlings need to be gradually accustomed to new, more severe conditions.
The procedure, in fact, is very simple and does not require any specialized knowledge.
- First, you just need to take the peppers to the balcony or veranda for literally 15-20 minutes.
- The next day, the time the plants spend on the street increases to 1 hour.
- With each next day, add a few hours, until, finally, the seedlings spend the night outside the house.
IMPORTANT UPDATE. If the weather has turned bad, then on this day it is not necessary to conduct hardening.
AND FURTHER. When the peppers will spend the night on the street, cover the boxes with seedlings of spanbond or some other covering material.
How to determine the time of transplantation in open ground
When choosing a time for transplanting into open ground, first of all, you need to pay attention to weather conditions.
So that the plants do not die, the window should be 18 - 20 degrees during the day and approximately 15 degrees at night. It is also very important that at this point the last morning frosts are left behind. Pepper is a very thermophilic culture, and a sharp decrease in temperature is detrimental to this plant.
In the Central Strip of Russia, pepper seedlings are planted in the last decade of May - the first decade of June. In colder regions (Ural, Siberia, Leningrad region) - in June. But in the Kuban and in the Crimea, you can transplant pepper to a permanent place in May.
The second factor that you need to pay attention to when planting peppers in a greenhouse or garden is the condition of the seedlings themselves. They should look healthy, with a thick stalk and 8 to 10 leaves.
BTW. That is why you need to maintain the timing of sowing seeds. So that at the time of transplantation peppers were completely ready for the procedure.
A list of the 5 most common mistakes when growing pepper seedlings:
- Too deep seed penetration.
- Presowing is not carried out or outdated planting material is sown.
- Non-compliance with growing conditions (temperature, lighting).
- Wrong variety for the climatic zone.
- Seedlings do not harden before transplanting.
Frequently Asked Questions
Can I plant seeds right away in a greenhouse or garden and not engage in growing seedlings?
In Russia, this is possible only in the southern regions and only in particularly warm years. The fact is that from the moment the peppers ascend to the moment the fruits ripen, the plant needs from 90 to 150 days. That is 3 - 5 months, when the temperature will not be lower than 18 - 20 degrees during the day.
Is seed preparation necessary?
No, but then germination and yield will decrease significantly.
Is hardening necessary?
Yes, if you do not want most plants to die in the first days.
Which pepper seeds are better?
Buy planting material only from trusted manufacturers. If you do not want to engage in the preparation of grains, then take coated seeds. In general, the variety must be selected for your climate.But now, almost all manufacturers write on a pack what climate seeds are best suited for.
There are seeds from last year, can I plant them?
Sure. But then they must be germinated and soaked in a growth stimulator.
What is the best way to feed pepper seedlings?
When the first shoots appear, use a weak solution of potassium humate. In the future, use the well-known preparations "Gumi", "Agricola", "Epin". Folk remedies based on hydrogen peroxide, yeast, ammonia and onion peel work well.
Growing peppers in seedlings is a traditional occupation of Russian summer residents. This is a long and rather complicated process, which involves a number of different factors. Nevertheless, knowing the technology and observing agricultural technology, even a beginner will be able to grow healthy seedlings of peppers in his apartment or house suitable for planting in a greenhouse or open ground.