Anemone: planting and care in the open ground, cultivation features
Anemone is one of the most suitable for growing flowers in a temperate climate. In the natural environment, this plant just does not like heat, preferring rocky, rocky foundations and poor soils. It is resistant to winds (hence the second name - anemone), unpretentious to temperature and sun exposure.
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There are more than 160 varieties of Anemones that grow at different speeds and can bloom in completely different seasons. Varieties often differ from each other externally, including significantly. Thanks to this property, you can surprisingly harmoniously diversify your flower garden, if you give preference not to one variety of Anemones, but to several at once.
With an ideal set of circumstances, a flowerbed, consisting entirely of Anemone, can please the eye with its flowering for almost the entire warm season.
What is anemone (anemone)
Anemone is a perennial plant belonging to the ranunculaceae family. Outwardly, it is very similar to poppy. However, different varieties can seriously differ from each other in color, leaf shape, time and duration of flowering.
In general, most of Anemone is a bush with small shoots, thin leaves and flowers rising high on strong stems.
Speaking of wildlife, the Anemones prefer mountainous terrain. They can often be found in flood meadows in a temperate climate, and in both hemispheres.
In Russia and neighboring countries, these plants are quite popular in summer cottages. The most common are low flowers, reaching a maximum of 30 cm. Tall Anemones also look spectacular, but require thorough care and constant care.
The main feature in growing Anemone is the nature of the root system of the flower. All varieties can be divided into:
The latter are the most unpretentious both to weather conditions around, and to leaving. Anemones with rhizomes easily grow on poor soils, tolerate wind, heat and unstable watering.
Tuberous - on the contrary. They definitely need to be carefully taken care of:
- For example, plant them with seeds and only in the winter.
- For winter, planted flower beds must be covered. For this, fallen foliage or tops from the harvested crop is suitable.
- With the onset of heat, water the flowers, loosen the ground and remove weeds.
- In the fall - fertilize bushes with standard mineral fertilizers.
But tuberous varieties with proper care grow much stronger, stronger than the rhizome varieties. Anemone with a tuberous root has noticeably more flowers. With bright, massive petals, they rise high enough (the highest varieties reach 1.5 m), which, of course, only ennobles any flower bed where they grow.
Features of planting a flower in open ground
Anemone can be planted in open ground three most common ways:
One of the easiest options is to plant the tubers immediately in a permanent place. It will be a little more difficult with transplanting by seedling method. The most difficult way is to germinate the seeds immediately on the open ground, as this requires a suitable climate, the optimal ratio of moisture and soil characteristics.
Planting anemones with tubers is a simple matter. The only important point is that you need to determine the growth point. That is, the tuber should be located in the hole with this point up.
Seeing a growth point is also relatively easy. For this, tubers should be pre-soaked in warm water. Swollen tubercles on the tuber will be the very points of growth.
One more tip: Experienced gardeners keen on breeding Anemones notice that the growth points on the tuber are mostly on the flat side. So, you need to plant the tuber with the sharp end down.
How to choose planting material?
Giving preference to planting Anemones with tubers, it is important in the spring to be able to choose high-quality planting material.
- Firstly, it is worth paying attention to the external condition of the tubers. It is better to get rid of rotten and too small tubers right away.
- If the root is large, but it has a decaying or simply damaged part, then the affected area can be carefully cut off. The rest of the tuber will fit for planting.
- It’s definitely not worth putting several tubers into the hole at once, albeit small ones. In fact, it certainly won’t lead to anything good. In the worst case, nothing will grow on this place. At best, soon too densely grown bushes will need to be planted.
Before planting on the site, it is advisable to soak the tubers in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. This will help get rid of harmful bacteria.
Wells about 15 centimeters deep are prepared for tubers. Next to the planted Anemone, you can sprinkle some humus and sawdust to feed and retain moisture, and then sprinkle the bed with earth.
How to soak tubers before planting?
There is no consensus on the need for soaking Anemone tubers. Some do without this procedure.
Proponents of a different opinion are sure that without treating the tubers with a weak solution of potassium permanganate after winter, you can not do without it. Thanks to this treatment, it is possible to prevent rotting, diseases and reproduction of pests in the soil.
Anemone tubers can be removed from winter storage sites as early as mid-April, in about a week, for a maximum of two, before planting in the ground. At first, tubers can be stored in a warm and dry room. You can plant them even with sprouts that have appeared. So it will be even easier to determine growth points.
It is not necessary to keep the roots in a solution of potassium permanganate for a long time, you can limit yourself to just a half-hour or hour procedure. After that, they immediately begin landing.
How to sow seeds on the street?
Anemones are relatively easy to grow with seeds, but if you plant the plants immediately in a permanent place, then the first seedlings hatch quite soon: about a year later.
It is much easier to germinate seeds first at home. So it turns out to maintain the optimal level of humidity, light and temperature, constantly monitoring all indicators.
In the second year, sprouts can be planted in the open. You should only take care of good protection from the wind and too bright sun. Then monitor the correct frequency of watering, and cover the bushes with foliage for the winter.
If everything is done correctly, then the first flowering of Anemones can be achieved no earlier than three years after planting a seed.
What soil do plants need?
Despite the fact that most of the varieties of Anemones are famous for their unpretentiousness to external conditions, it is still desirable to prepare the soil before planting plants.
First of all, Anemones love loose soil. If the land on the site is solid, then you can add sand to it. Sand, by the way, at the same time will increase drainage of the upper layers of the earth, which will contribute to the correct and rapid growth of rhizomes.
In areas where acidic soils predominate, wood ash or dolomite flour, added with a thin layer on the surface, will help to rectify the situation.
It is believed that the most suitable soil for growing Anemones is loam with peat. It will have enough minerals for growth, it passes the optimum amount of moisture, as well as relatively light and loose for germination of fragile and, frankly, weak roots (we are talking about root Anemones). Well suited, including ordinary hardwood with humus.
How to choose a place to land?
When choosing a place for a flower bed with Anemone, you need to pay attention to the following characteristics:
- For very young sprouts, a place protected from drafts is best suited. The young roots of the plant are so weak that in the open area they simply cannot withstand strong gusts of wind.
- Also, for young plants, partial shade or even completely shady areas should be chosen. Extreme heat, and especially direct sunlight, drains the soil around the Anemone bushes and deny them the ability to grow quickly.
- At the same time, you should make sure that Anemone has enough space for it to grow. Between the bushes it is necessary to withstand a step of 30-40 cm. The same rule applies to the distance between the beds.
For all of the above reasons, the best places for Anemone bushes include the courtyard of private houses, plots next to garden trees, flower beds along fences and walls.
How to care for seedlings?
For seedlings Anemones seeds or even small roots can come up. They need to be planted in a fairly spacious box with fertile and moist soil. I must say that maintaining humidity is a very important point that must be monitored especially carefully.
Choosing the soil, you should be guided by the following qualities necessary for the proper growth of the flower:
- The earth should be loose and well-drained (pebbles, ash, sawdust will be useful).
- Too acidic soil Anemone is harmful. Therefore, to reduce the alkaline balance should be the addition of ash, humus, fine-grained sand.
- When sprouts appear, weeding can be taken as a rule (with a fork, knife) - this will provide access to the roots of the air.
What seeds, what roots - they all take a long time to germinate. Usually, only a year after planting, the first sprouts begin to hatch.
All this time, you can maintain the usual room temperature near the box (although it is better that the air is slightly colder than normal: about +16 Cabout), do not fertilize the soil, but only water it 2-3 times a week.
Sprouted Anemone sprouts are ready for transplanting on open ground when at least 4 leaves are formed on them. The optimal time for a transplant is late April, early May.
For seedlings on the site, you need to prepare small holes with a depth of not more than 5 cm. It is recommended to maintain at least 30 cm of distance between the sprouts.
At the end of the work, the flower bed should be watered. If desired, make fertilizers rich in minerals in the composition.
Then Anemone will take root in a new place. Before winter, you can remove the entire tops (the aerial part of the plant under the root) and cover it with the root. The first flowers should appear the next season after planting.
Features of care for adult plants
For adult Anemone bushes (and all plants are considered to be such, starting from 3 years of age) it is always relatively easy to care for. Many dressings are not required, the flower is also unpretentious to the level of illumination. Is that a little more carefully have to deal with the frequency of irrigation. And this applies only to tuberous varieties.
In the spring
Spring is the planting time for most varieties of Anemones. The most favorable period in the middle lane is the middle or end of April.
There is no single rule whether to feed Anemone in spring or not. However, if fertilizer is still applied (mineral mixtures are best), then until spring you can only water the flower and not take care of anything else.
In spring, Anemone in a temperate climate lacks moisture without artificial irrigation. But in order to accelerate growth, it is possible to take as a rule the sequence of moistening the soil next to the bush no more than 1 time per week.
Mild summers are an ideal time for flowering Anemones. At this time, some varieties do not require any maintenance at all.
However, if the weather is set too hot, then watering the bushes is recommended. The best time to water is in the early morning or evening after sunset.
Fertilizers in the warmest season can not be applied at all. But if there is a desire, then you can limit yourself to adding manure. The main thing is that it is not fresh.
In autumn, the frequency of watering decreases to the spring level (1 time per week). In the latest varieties, flowering can continue until the end of November.
When the plant fades and begins to discard the green cover, then you need to remove the tops under the root. If a warm winter is expected, then the flower bed can not even be covered. Otherwise, it is better to cover the remaining roots or tubers with harvested foliage, tops, etc.
In general, Anemone begins to bloom quite early even without a thorough departure. Some varieties bloom even twice a year.
What will need to be monitored especially is:
- So that the bushes were planted in partial shade. Too bright the sun can harm the plant. As well as the complete absence of sunlight - too.
- Do not dry the soil near the bush. If required, water additionally as needed.
- Monitor the appearance of pests and remove them in time (remove manually).
Otherwise, it will be possible to cope with care even without serious experience. So most of the planted Anemone bushes are sure to bloom.
How to care after flowering?
Usually Anemone can fully bloom from April to October or even November. But much, of course, depends on the variety and care.
When the Anemone fades, it is recommended to cultivate and spud the site before the first frost, well sprinkling the bushes with earth. After the first frosts, it is permissible to dig out the bush and separate the tuber from it. The aboveground part is thrown out.
Tip: It is not recommended to dig up flowers at a time when the leaves on them are still green. This state indicates that nutrient processes are still taking place in the tuber, and the plant is not ready for winter.
In regions with relatively mild winters, you can limit yourself to cutting off the aerial parts of the bush, and leaving tubers in the winter. Slight frosts will not be able to harm the root system throughout the winter.
In some cases, it does not hurt to cover the plot with Anemone tubers with fallen leaves or harvested tops from other garden crops. So it will be possible to minimize the effect of sudden temperature changes throughout the cold season.
However, if the winters in the region are characterized by severe frosts, it is better to dig up the tubers, dry them and store them until the next planting in spring.
How to store in winter and prepare for wintering?
Preparing Anemone tuber for wintering is quite simple. Conditions for normal storage are no different from similar crops and flowers:
- The basement with minimal access to light and a constant temperature from +1 to +7 C can be called an ideal place.about.
- The humidity level is permissible in the range of 80-100%.
But remember that high humidity along with heat can ruin all tubers as they begin to sprout and rot.
Tip: if there is not enough space for all the tubers, then it is permissible to store them in boxes, in several layers. Even better, if you sprinkle the roots with a layer of wet sand.
One of the options for storing bulbs is wrapping them in printing paper. Such a lump can be buried in sawdust or sand and thus leave the tubers until spring.
Anemones do not like too arid and hot climate. Based on this, and you need to adjust the frequency of irrigation.
In the middle zone of Russia, in spring and autumn it is enough to irrigate the beds with Anemone 1-2 times a week. In summer, when most varieties are at the peak of flowering, the frequency of watering should be increased.
But it is worth paying attention to the fact that if the summer is rainy, then you may not need to additionally water the Anemone bushes.
On the other hand, when there is no rain at all, watering can be done even twice a day: in the morning and in the evening.
In terms of top dressing, Anemone is one of the most undemanding flowers. Mineral enrichment is required only once a year - in the fall. And only then if no fertilizers were used at all during spring planting.
In summer, when flowering is in full swing, it is allowed to fertilize the topsoil with organic fertilizers (but not strictly with fresh manure!).
After fertilizing, many gardeners note that it is better to weed and loosen the beds with Anemone. But in no case do not use large choppers for this, since there is a risk of damaging very thin roots of the bushes.
In the horticultural environment, several methods of breeding Anemone are widely practiced:
- by seeds;
- division of roots or bushes.
All methods are almost identical to each other, so which one to give preference to is a private matter for everyone.
Perhaps the most common way for those varieties of Anemone called tuberous.
The main part of the root - the tuber - can remain in the ground, and new Anemone bushes will grow from it every year. Or, if the climate does not allow, the tubers are dug up and stored in a cool and not too damp place.
But tubers can also be dug to breed Anemones. The largest roots are suitable for division. Before planting, they can be divided into several parts with a sharp knife.
Then the tubers are planted in separate holes at a distance of about 30-40 centimeters from each other.
Propagating Anemones in a seed way, it is worth considering that the seeds have a low germination. Under normal conditions, sprouts give only about a quarter of the sown material.
Tip: Stratification or hardening of seeds will greatly increase germination. You can influence the cold by planting the seeds in separate boxes and leaving them in a cool place (about +5 Cabout) for 1-2 months or even sowing beds under the winter outdoors.
Planting seeds is at the end of spring, when night frosts no longer occur. However, different varieties can be planted in different ways in order to achieve consistent flowering of the flower bed for as long as possible until late autumn.
Anemone from the seeds emerges quickly, but the first flowering in a plant occurs only in the second year after planting.
Reproduction by dividing the bush
Sometimes propagation of Anemones by dividing the bush is practiced. But it is worth recognizing that this method requires a lot of experience and accuracy.
Firstly, only adult plants that grow in one place for at least four or five years are suitable for him.
You can use the method in summer or autumn, when the bush has formed as well as possible after winter. For the procedure, you will need to dig out the entire Anemone and divide the bushes in such a way that each new seedling has its own root.
New sprouts are planted either immediately in the new soil in the neighborhood, or in seedling boxes. If a harsh winter is coming, then, of course, it is better to germinate new Anemone bushes in more suitable conditions: for example, at home or in a warm barn in a specially prepared container.
Anemone roots are dividing in spring. To do this, dig out the root completely and divide it into separate rhizomes. The main condition: so that each root has a kidney for growth, and also reaches at least 5 cm in length.
Separate roots are planted in loose and fertile soil, digging to a depth of only 4-5 cm. As you grow, you will need to carefully monitor the watering. To dry the earth is not allowed. So, in the summer, if there is no rain for a long time, it is imperative to organize watering in the morning and evening.
The method of reproduction through the root system is the longest in time. The plant reaches an adult state only 3 years after planting.
Anemone is better not to transplant. This flower does not tolerate any damage to the root system, which is weak, or even fragile.
Therefore, it is allowed to transplant only tuberous Anemone, and even then only in such a way as to dig up the tuber for storage before winter, and to plant a new bush only in spring.
Popular varieties and types
In total, there are more than 160 different species of Anemone. But some of them are very popular. Some are surprisingly unpretentious to care for, others amaze the imagination with especially interesting colors during flowering.
All varieties can be divided by the time of flowering: spring or summer flowers.
And also in the form of the root system: tuberous or rhizome. Rhizomes, as a rule, grow rapidly and begin to bloom in May. But they retire early too - in July-August. Tuberous ones take a long time to form, but will please with flowers until late fall.
Among the forest Anemones, among the main differences, one can distinguish broad roots of leaves, as well as rather large flowers.
Thanks to the dense greenery, forest Anemone, although it grows quite low (up to half a meter), but forms a dense and beautiful bush. On some varieties, especially large flowers grow, up to 6-8 cm in diameter.
Immediately, several advantages will be presented by the crown species of Anemone. The most famous varieties:
- De Caen (different colors, depending on the variety);
- Mr. Fokker (blue coloring of flowers);
- Don Juan (bright red terry flowers);
- Lord Jim (blue color).
The main positive quality of the crowned Anemone is blooming in early summer and autumn - that is, twice a year.
At the same time, the bushes look amazing, sometimes reaching a height of one and a half meters. Large and bright flowers that rise on strong and thick legs crown this garden.
Anemones of Japan, or, as it is also called, hybrid, form flowers in a special way. They ripen in whole inflorescences, similar to clusters.
Japanese Anemone grows no more than 40 cm in height. It is characterized by different colors of the petals, but mostly pale blue and white shades prevail.
One of the smallest Anemones known to man. Bushes barely reach 10 cm in height, and for the most part stop at 5 cm in height.
The most common varieties:
- Blue Shades (gray-blue flowers);
- Charmer (pale pink flowers);
- White Splendour (white flowers).
The gentle Anemone has developed foliage, which covers the lower part of the bush with a dense blanket. The flowers are large (especially regarding the size of the flower itself), with well-developed petals. On each bush several flowers grow at once, so the flowerbed always looks colorful.
These varieties are already remarkable for the fact that they grow on almost any soil, even heavily depleted in nutrient content.
And although the bushes of buttercup Anemones are not very attractive (they grow only up to 20 cm tall, small yellow flowers form on them), it can be considered as a variety for the garden.
How to grow in a pot?
There are many cases where Anemone is grown at home in pots. Since this plant is not very demanding on care and external conditions, there is nothing complicated in this process.
On the contrary, at home under an ideal set of circumstances (in particular, it is not very hot and not too dry), these flowers can constantly bloom up to 5-6 months a year. Another important point is that at home it will be necessary to create good lighting, which will last at least 12 hours a day. Otherwise, the flower will remain half asleep almost all the time.
The most in demand for growing in pots is Decaen.. But other varieties of Anemone can quite successfully grow on balconies, in flowerpots and just on window sills.
For cultivation, you should take a rather large pot in diameter (from 20 cm) in which to plant 5-6 seeds, 2-3 tubers or 2-3 seedlings sprouts.
Fertile mixtures with good moisture permeability are suitable as soil. If you prepare the composition yourself, then you need to add humus, sand, sawdust. About a third of the pot should be small stones to improve drainage.
You can feed home Anemones only once a year in the spring. It is better to use purchased mineral-rich mixes.
Put the pot in a well-ventilated area. In terms of temperature, it is better to adhere to the rule: the less, the better. It is known that in the range from +7 to +16 Cabout Anemone feels most well.
Water the plant should be 2-3 times a week. In this case, it is not necessary to spray Anemone leaves, since it is possible to provoke the development of putrefactive diseases.
What is anemone distillation and how to do it by March 8?
Anemone is the same plant that can bloom at any time of the year. The main thing is to comply with all necessary conditions.
For example, so that by March 8, Anemone pleased with bright and developed inflorescences, her tubers should be planted around December-January. At the same time, you can plant already grown seedlings. If you give preference to seed planting, it will take about a year for a normal plant to form that can bloom.
All the time of growth, it is important to maintain a low room temperature. The best option is + 12-15 Cabout. In addition, it is important not to forget that with a lack of light, especially in winter, Anemone does not develop, but freezes. If you do not notice it in time, it is easy to fill and spoil the flower.
Diseases and Pests
Anemones rarely get sick or are seriously attacked by pests.
Growing Anemone, you can sometimes encounter the occurrence of root rot. But it arises only under the influence of man, namely because of uncontrolled watering.
Sometimes slugs or snails settle on Anemones, which spoil the appearance of the flower. Metaldehyde solution will be driven away by pests for a long time (apply strictly according to the instructions). But, and, of course, pests that have already appeared will need to be collected manually.
But if leafy nematodes or winterworms are wound up on the plant, then most likely you will have to get rid of the damaged bushes, and remove the top layer of soil below them and transfer them away from healthy Anemones.
It can be noted that it is very difficult to make a mistake with growing Anemone. This is really an unpretentious and very persistent flower. In many ways, it grows completely independently.
Therefore, the main problems are often associated with excessive diligence. The easiest way is to spoil Anemone if you water it more than the norm. Almost always, the moisture that she receives with dew and rain is enough for her.
Quite often, Anemone is dug up every time for the winter. Although during mild winters it is enough to simply cover the flower bed with foliage and greenery from the harvested crop.
Finally, do not forget that the Anemones are quite whimsical in terms of temperature, preferring coolness and blowing with a fresh breeze. On the contrary, too sunny and open areas will adversely affect the growth of this plant.
Answers to popular questions
When is it better to plant?
It all depends on the variety. Most Anemone species are ready to land in mid-spring. Some can be planted in the summer to achieve flowering in the fall.
At home, Anemone is allowed to plant even in winter to enjoy the first flowers in early spring.
When do they dig anemones for the winter?
At the end of autumn. The ideal situation is that the plant has completely bloomed and has begun to discard foliage.
How to collect seeds?
Too many types of Anemone are self-sowing. To collect seeds, it is recommended to dig in boxes with fertilized soil during the overgrowth of bushes next to the flowerbed. Seeds will naturally enter it.
For the winter, the box is placed in a warm, but not hot place. In spring, it is already possible to wait for the appearance of the first shoots.
Which side to plant and how to determine the top and bottom?
Anemone tubers should be planted with the growth point up. Worldly advice says that most of these points are on the flat side of the tuber. So, the opposite, sharp, part should be directed down.
Anemone is a completely easy-to-care flower, which, nevertheless, has several advantages at once, which determine its popularity. Anemones are extremely diverse (160 varieties), they can easily decorate any flowerbed, are well adapted to the temperate climate of Russia.
In short, caring for Anemone is pleasant and easy. For this reason, it is perfect for not the most experienced summer residents. On the other hand, the excellent appearance and truly inexhaustible possibilities for creating a unique design in the garden are excellent characteristics for avid gardeners.