How to feed apple trees in spring, especially spring fertilizing
Apple tree - fruit tree number 1 in any garden. No other culture can compare with its popularity. Now there are a great many varieties of apples that are grown everywhere in Russia.
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However, many summer residents do not pay due attention to such a question as the nutrition of fruit trees. As a result of this, summer residents do not receive a significant share of the fruit crop.
This time we decided to tell you what and when to carry out spring dressing of apple trees.
When in the spring you need to feed apple trees: schemes and terms
An apple tree is a culture that grows in almost every garden. An apple tree is a tree that bears fruit for several decades in a row. Naturally, the soil under the tree is gradually depleted. Therefore, it is very important to regularly feed. This is necessary to enhance the health of the fruit tree, and to saturate the earth with useful micro and macro elements.
Fertilizing apple trees begins in March-April and ends in October-November. As guidelines for fertilizing use the phases of the development of the tree.
Consider the traditional scheme and timing of fertilizing under apple trees.
How to feed apple trees before flowering
Before the first flowers appear on the tree, two top dressings are carried out. The first occurs in March-April - the time when the kidneys have not yet woken up, but the snow has already melted.
Typically, the procedure is carried out after trimming to help the tree regain strength.
So, the first top dressing is to make nitrogen fertilizers.
You can limit yourself to adding only ammonium nitrate or urea, or you can add nitroammophoska, which contains both phosphorus and potassium.
Application rates are as follows:
- Urea - 3 tablespoons per square meter or per bucket of water when watering;
- Complex fertilizer - 100 g of superphosphate, 60 g of potassium sulfate, 10 l of water.
REFERENCE. To enhance the effect of drugs, the earth in the near-stem circle can be mulched with compost. It will turn out a very effective fertilizer for a long time. The apple tree will receive nitrogen in the right doses throughout the season.
The second top dressing before flowering consists in the introduction of quickly digestible potassium-phosphorus fertilizers.
There are two ways at this point. You can feed the apple with nitroammophos or superphosphate. But the fact is that a tree cannot immediately receive these nutrients.
Therefore, it is more correct to apply fertilizers that are quickly absorbed. Of the purchased funds, Aquarin is suitable. You can mix the complex composition yourself according to this recipe: 2 kg of double superphosphate and a ten-liter bucket of boiling water. When the infusion has cooled, add 1 liter of vinegar (you need 9 percent). During the day, the concentrate is infused, after which it is diluted with another bucket of water. In total, you have 20 liters of finished concentrate. Dilute for use in a ratio of 1 to 10. Enough for a large garden.
Another feeding option is 250 g of dry bird droppings, 25 g of urea, 50 g of superphosphate, 40 g of potassium sulfate, 20 l of water. Insist for a week.
Feeding apple trees during flowering
During flowering, several dressings are carried out. Their number must be determined based on the state of plants and weather conditions.
To improve fruit formation in the pink bud stage, a solution of boron is sprayed (10 g of boric acid per bucket). As an alternative, the purchased drug Boroplus is suitable.
The main feeding in during the flowering period should consist in treating Aqarin or another similar preparation on a leaf (i.e. spraying).
How to fertilize after flowering, during the formation of ovaries
The spring phase is ending at the ovary formation phase.
INTERESTING. Did not have time to feed the trees with nitrogen until the buds swell? Well, this can be done a week after the flowers are showered. Foliar treatment is carried out with a solution of 3 tablespoons of urea and a bucket of water.
The main feeding at this stage is the use of complex formulations. It’s best to use purchased products designed specifically for apple trees. For example, Plantafid, Agromaster, Aquarin, etc.
What types of fertilizing apple trees are
Apple trees respond well to both root (watering) and foliar (spraying) top dressing.
The greatest efficiency is achieved by alternating these species. Then the tree develops evenly in the aerial part and the root system.
Consider the features of fertilizing under the apple trees in various ways.
Root top dressing of apple trees
Under the root, it is better to apply liquid fertilizer. You can scatter (and then dig in) dry top dressing if you are sure that it will rain soon. Spreading the dry granules provides the plant with nutrition for a long time. This method is effective if you appear from time to time in the country and do not have the opportunity to regularly feed the tree.
Nutrient elements are introduced not near the trunk, but in a circle at a distance of 0.7 - 1 m, since it is there that the roots of the tree are located.
How to apply fertilizer in a non-root way
If dry top dressing is better to spread before the rain, then processing on the sheet, on the contrary, is necessary in dry weather. In this case, the air temperature should not be higher than 25 degrees. Therefore, it is better to carry out the processing in the morning.
Water needs to be used warm, settled. Also do not forget about protection. Use glasses, a mask and a hat.
In the foliar way, it is most convenient to carry out top dressing if necessary, if the apple tree lacks some trace element. Deficiency can be determined by the external condition of leaves, fruits and shoots.
ON A NOTE. Unlike root dressings, which are carried out in early spring, foliar treatment is most effective in the second half of spring and throughout the summer.
Features of feeding young trees
If you planted a tree last spring or autumn, then this year you do not need to contribute anything. But this is only if, planting a tree, you poured some fertilizer into the planting pit. If this was not, then top dressing is required.
Young trees are best fed with water-based formulations. In this case, the amount of active substance is halved so as not to cause chemical burns to the plant.
For young trees, it is very important that liquid dressings be applied after watering. Firstly, that’s how they are better absorbed. And secondly, it’s less likely to burn sensitive tree roots.
ON A NOTE. For young trees, all drug standards should be divided by 2.
How to feed old apple trees
Those apple trees, which are more than 6-9 years old, and which actively bear fruit, are conventionally considered old.
If you sprinkle or pour fertilizer under the root, then you need to carry out the procedure using a special technology. Dry components must be buried in the soil over the entire area of the trunk circle. 0.7 m is measured from the tree trunk. Fertilizers are applied in a circle. The diameter approximately corresponds to the size of the crown.
ON A NOTE. Any fertilizer is best applied in the morning, evening or on a cloudy day.
Old apple trees respond well to organic dressing. It’s quite difficult to spray large trees, so the main focus is on the root method of fertilizing.
Trees older than 20 years are very rarely fed, mostly manure, which is planted in the ground under a crown.
What fertilizers can be used in spring
Apple trees respond equally well to all types of fertilizers. Consider the main types of nutrition for this fruit tree.
Ready-made fertilizers for apple trees
When eating apple trees (especially adult specimens), it is best to use ready-made integrated solutions. These drugs contain nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, as well as other trace elements.
First of all, you won’t forget about any component. Secondly, the tree will receive all the nutrients it needs, and, therefore, it will develop evenly.
Below are the most popular ready-made fertilizers that can be used with great efficiency for trees.
The most popular complex fertilizer, in which nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus are represented in equal proportions.
For watering, 4 tablespoons of the product are bred in a standard bucket. On a young tree enough 1-2 buckets for watering. Up to 4-5 buckets are spent per adult.
In fact, this is some kind of compost, based on ordinary chicken droppings. Fertilizer is used to increase the yield and taste of fruits. Gumi-Omi also protects the tree from the adverse effects of the external environment, parasites and diseases.
Sold in plastic buckets. It differs in that it is quickly absorbed by the plant. This top dressing can be used at all stages, since it contains all the necessary micro and macro elements.
One of the best fertilizers for processing trees on a leaf. It can be used with equal success at almost all stages of seasonal development: from flowering to fruit formation.
It contains a whole complex of trace elements in the form that is easiest for plants to absorb.
There are many brands, but the essence of the products remains one. These are complex compounds with humates. They can be used either separately to strengthen the immunity of the plant, or added to other dressings to saturate the apple trees immediately with all the necessary nutrients.
ON A NOTE. All prepared fertilizers must be bred in strict accordance with the instructions supplied by the manufacturer.
How to make mineral fertilizers
Almost all mineral fertilizers can be applied under apple trees.
Urea is introduced in early spring or at the stage when the flowering is over, but the fruits have not yet begun to set.
Norms of drug costs:
- 3 tablespoons (30 gr) per ten-liter bucket with root application.
- 1-2 tablespoons (10-30 g) per ten-liter bucket when processed on a sheet.
It is brought in the early spring exclusively under the root. Fertilizer can be planted in soil or planted in water.
The consumption rate of the drug is 40 g per 1 sq m with dry application and the same amount per bucket of water when watering.
Superphosphate is applied before flowering. Better in the second top dressing. To prepare the working solution, mix 4 tablespoons of the product and 10 liters of water.
This top dressing is best used for very mature trees. The fact is that with an excess of the drug, the tree can get a burn of the root system. In older apple trees, the roots are powerful, so they more easily tolerate any effect.
The working solution is prepared from 50 g of potassium sulfate and 10 l of water.
Mineral fertilizer that accelerates the ripening of fruits. It can be used in the second half of spring. Feeding is carried out in a foliar way.
IMPORTANT! Chlorine fertilizers (potassium chloride, diammophos) are best applied in the fall, so as not to provoke the development of chlorosis.
How to feed apple trees in spring with folk remedies for a large crop
It is not necessary to buy fertilizer in the store. There are organic fertilizers, which are also useful and show high efficiency. Among the most common remedies:
- Chicken droppings divorced in a ratio of 1 to 20. This is a nitrogen-containing fertilizer, and, therefore, it must be introduced in early spring.
- Mullein (or horse manure) divorced in a ratio of 1 to 20. This fertilizer is better to water only adult plants, as young specimens can burn their roots.
- Wood ash replaces complex phosphorus-potash fertilizers. This tool is absolutely harmless and very effective. To feed 1 apple tree you need 200 grams of ash and a bucket of water.
- Bone flour - it is a phosphoric organic fertilizer. The drug is best closed up dry in the ground in a near-stem circle. For 1 sq. M you need a glass of flour.
- Humus. These are rotten plants, manure, etc. Almost safe for tree roots.
- Green Fertilizer - this is an infusion of nettle and other herbs. It is a source of nitrogen. You can feed them 1 time after flowering. In the future, nitrogen fertilizing is not needed.
- Mulch. Mulching the trunk circle will allow the tree to receive nutrients gradually throughout the summer season. Also, the mulch retains moisture and prevents weeds and unnecessary root shoots from growing.
ON A NOTE. Organic fertilizers are also mainly bred in water, as this speeds up their digestibility by trees.
Despite the fact that there is an apple tree in almost every garden, summer residents often make mistakes when applying fertilizers.
- The introduction of nitrogen-containing fertilizers (urea, mullein, bird droppings, ammonium nitrate) in the summer. Due to this error, the internal resources of the tree are directed to the growth of leaves and shoots, rather than the setting and ripening of fruits. Nitrogen feeding is carried out in the spring.
- Spreading dry fertilizer under a tree. If you feed the apple trees with dry formulations for a longer nutrition, then they must be embedded in the soil.
- Fertilizing near the trunk. For greater efficiency, fertilizers must be applied in the near-stem circle, retreating about 1 m.
- The apple tree was overfed. Excess fertilizer is also harmful. In addition to the tree itself, the quality of the fruit suffers. They become bitter and tasteless.
- Irregular feeding. It is a mistake to think that it is enough to feed the apple tree with all available preparations once to get a positive effect. Rather, on the contrary, your tree will fall ill or bear bad fruits.
- Sheet processing in rainy weather. It will not bring harm to the plant, but all your efforts will go down the drain, as useful trace elements will simply be washed off by the rain.
Frequently Asked Questions
Does the apple tree need to be fed every year?
Ideally, yes. Moreover, fertilizer is applied throughout the season and according to a certain pattern.
What is better folk recipes or complex fertilizers?
The essence of both folk and mineral fertilizing in one thing is to saturate the tree and the soil under them with the necessary trace elements. What means to choose for you to decide based on your own preferences and budget.
What kind of apple trees can I not feed?
Usually young apple trees planted last year do not feed. But only on condition that when landing in the holes all the necessary elements were added.
Very rare apple trees, which are more than 15-20 years old, are also rarely fed.
When do you need to apply fertilizer under apple trees in spring?
Fertilizing is necessary, starting from March-April, when the snow melts and until the fruit sets. Also, emergency top dressing is carried out if a deficiency of any trace element is detected.
Fertilizing apple trees in the spring months will help these trees not only bear fruit well, but also resist pests. It is very important to observe the timing and feeding patterns. At each stage, you need your type of fertilizer.
If you follow the recommendations and norms of drug consumption, then by the fall you will receive a plentiful harvest of ripe and tasty apples.