Superphosphate: fertilizer, application in the garden
The chemical industry regularly produces more and more fertilizers with improved formulas, effects on plants and prolonged action. But still among the summer residents are still popular and old, time-tested top dressing. Among them is superphosphate.
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In this article we will tell you what kind of dressing it is, why it is needed and how to use it correctly.
What is superphosphate
Superphosphate - This is a fertilizer with a high phosphorus content and a low nitrogen content.
It turns out this top dressing by industrial processing of phosphorites with sulfuric acid.
Externally, the agent is a gray powder. You can also find granular substance of gray (less often white) color.
The tool is actively used in the agricultural industry and personal subsidiary plots:
- During digging in the spring or autumn after harvesting;
- When planting new plants in the garden and in the garden (from bulb flowers and lawn to fruit trees);
- When transplanting seedlings to a permanent place;
- As a regular feeding of all cultivated plants.
The formula and composition of superphosphate
Superphosphate has a complex chemical formula (CaH2RO4) 2 x Н2О + 2СаSО4 x 2Н2О.
In fact, superphosphate is not a pure chemistry product. A remedy is made from apatites, which, in turn, appear due to geological processes.
Fertilizer contains up to 50% of phosphorus compounds (monocalcium phosphate and phosphoric acid). In addition, the preparation contains other elements, the proportion of which is much smaller. For example: nitrogen, copper, cobalt, molybdenum, calcium sulfate, sulfur, manganese, boron.
Now on the market of preparations for agriculture, the following varieties of this top dressing are presented:
- Monophosphate in the form of a gray powder. It contains only 20% phosphorus. The name "simple superphosphate" is also found. It is used for applying to the soil in a dry form.
- Dual superphosphate has up to 50% phosphorus. It is used mainly in liquid form.
- Granular Superphosphate in addition to phosphorus, it contains calcium sulfate (30%). Favorably characterized by ease of storage. It is used mainly for feeding cabbage and other cruciferous.
- Ammonized Superphosphate contains about 30% of phosphorus. It is considered a highly effective fertilizer of the combined type, since it contains a significant amount of nitrogen.
- Humified Superphosphate differs in the increased share of magnesium, calcium and humates. It is considered simple superphosphate.
ON A NOTE. Double superphosphate differs from monophosphate in the production method and the amount of phosphorus in the composition. Monophosphate also contains more sulfur.
How to determine that plants need to be fed superphosphate
The first sign that plants need phosphorus-containing fertilizer is the color change of the shoots and leaf plates. Instead of green, they acquire a blue-violet or reddish hue. In extreme cases, necrotic spots form. If the problem is not solved for a long time, then phosphorus deficiency affects the growth and development of the plant and its appearance: the foliage deforms and falls. Also, phosphorus deficiency is manifested in root crops. They are getting dark.
Application of superphosphate as fertilizer in spring
Dry powder is applied by incorporation into the soil. 50 g of monophosphate is consumed per 1 sq m of the garden. If you have double superphosphate, then its amount is halved, that is, up to 25 grams per 1 sq m. This is the rate of consumption of the drug during spring preparation of the soil for planting.
Also, the drug is added to the holes and landing pits. If you decide to plant a few new currant bushes or a pear on the site, pour a little preparation directly into the hole. This will provide the plant with nutrition.
The product can be poured into a compost pit to obtain complex fertilizer.
ON A NOTE. Spring application of fertilizer stimulates the development of greenery and strengthening the roots of the plant.
How to apply superphosphate for feeding in autumn
In autumn, the granules of the drug can be buried in the ground to nourish a tree or shrub for a long time. In addition, this tool has a beneficial effect on the soil and increases its nutritional value.
The depth of incorporation of dry granular matter is 1 bayonet. The product is distributed at regular intervals over the entire area of planting.
Instructions for the use of superphosphate as fertilizer in the garden
Superphosphate is usually used as root dressing, as phosphorus compounds are poorly absorbed by spraying. Fertilizer can be applied in dry form, but then you must definitely dig it into the soil so that it does not lose its properties. Dry top dressing is carried out for long-term nutrition of plants. The water-based solution is designed to quickly saturate the plant with phosphates with a clear phosphorus deficiency.
Cucumbers can be fed with phosphorus fertilizer in several stages.
The first time fertilizer can be applied during soil preparation. It is best to mix the product with other mineral fertilizers to obtain complex fertilizer. All components (superphosphate, ammonium nitrate and potassium sulfate) are mixed in equal proportions.
When the plant releases a second pair of real leaves, you can prepare such a comprehensive nutrition: dissolve 20 grams of double superphosphate in a bucket of water and add the same amount of potassium sulfate. Water the plants at the rate of 1 liter per 1 bush.
The next top dressing is carried out when the first flowers appear. At this point, increase the concentration of the agent (35 g per bucket of hot water). The solution was allowed to cool and left overnight. During this time he insists. The next day, filter and spray.
How to apply superphosphate to strawberries in spring
Strawberry responds well to the application of this tool. You can use either one superphosphate (10 g per bucket of water), or mixing the drug with mullein and ash. Complex fertilizer is prepared from 1 liter of mullein, 30 grams of superphosphate and 200 grams of ash.
ON A NOTE. If you mix the product with mullein (1 kg) and water (10 l), you will get fertilizer that you can feed the culture after the end of the summer season, that is, in autumn.
Superphosphate treatment of trees and shrubs
In spring, fertilizer is usually applied during planting (it is poured into the planting pits), or as part of a complex nitrogen-potassium-phosphorus fertilizer.
Autumn top dressing of fruit and berry plantations helps plants easier to tolerate wintering. For a longer supply, the fertilizer is closed up throughout the near-stem circle to a depth of 10 cm. The consumption rate is determined based on the size of a particular instance. For 1 medium bush, 2 tablespoons are enough, for an adult apple tree you need about 10 tablespoons (or 2 tablespoons per square meter).
IMPORTANT! If you practice regular autumn dressing with phosphorus fertilizers, then you need to periodically liming to maintain the acidity level of the soil. Therefore, every 4-5 years, add 0.2 - 0.3 kg of lime per 1 square of the area.
Fertilizing garlic in spring
15-20 g of funds in a ten-liter bucket of water.
Superphosphate for onions
15-20 g of funds in a ten-liter bucket of water.
How to water seedlings SF
Seedlings for uniform growth and development require phosphorus compounds. It is necessary to add phosphorus-containing top dressing 2 weeks after the dive. Top dressing is carried out by extracting from superphosphate (how to cook it is described below).
How to fertilize potatoes
Phosphorus fertilizer can be added when planting potatoes. Enough 1 teaspoon of dry powder funds per well. During the growth of the bushes, root dressing can be carried out by dissolving 1 tablespoon of dry matter in 1 bucket.
A few weeks before harvesting, you can spray the potatoes with a light solution of the drug. This will accelerate the ripening of tubers and improve their taste.
How to use superphosphate for cabbage
For cabbage, it is better not just to add dry granular substance, but to prepare a complex top dressing of potassium chloride (10 g), ammonium nitrate (15 g) and superphosphate (40 g). Everything is mixed and filled with water. Processing can be carried out both by the root and extra-root method.
Raspberries are fed with phosphorus fertilizer during spring planting (you need 40 grams of the drug).
Re-product can be added at the end of summer. Fertilizer is applied in dry form at the rate of 2 matchboxes of the product per 1 sq m of raspberry.
Fertilizing flowers with superphosphate in the open field
Separately, phosphate top dressing is carried out at the rate of 30 grams of the drug per bucket of water. In the spring, the product is also applied during planting.
Superphosphate for indoor flowers and plants
For home flowers and ornamental plants, phosphorus-containing products are used for general health promotion and prolongation of flowering.
In the first case, you need to mix complex fertilizer: 1 g of ammonium nitrate, a pinch of potassium salt and a pinch of superphosphate per liter of liquid.
To prolong flowering, you need 3 grams of ammonium nitrate, 6 grams of potassium salt, 6 grams of superphosphate and 5 liters of water.
How to apply for lilies
Garden lilies are fed with phosphorus fertilizer to help flowers survive the winter and form more inflorescences next year. For a complex effect, superphosphate is mixed with kalimagnesia (2 and 1.5 tablespoons, respectively). Top dressing is dissolved in water and irrigated.
Grape top dressing
Grapes need to be fed with fertilizer not every year, but about once every 3 years. For 1 sq m of soil used for grapes you need 2 matchboxes of superphosphate. The drug is buried in the ground for 2 bayonets.
How to quickly dissolve superphosphate in water
In order to quickly dilute superphosphate, boiling water is needed. We take 100 grams of the drug (4 matchboxes), dissolve them in 1 liter of boiling water and leave to insist overnight. The result is the so-called "Extract from superphosphate". In fact, it is a concentrate that is diluted in a ratio of 1 to 10 with water and used as liquid fertilizer.
Superphosphate compatibility with other fertilizers table
The tool is compatible with almost all fertilizers. However, there are some drugs that should not be mixed. This is mainly due to the fact that as a result of a chemical reaction, phosphorus will not dissolve, which means that plants will not receive it.
Table. Superphosphate compatibility with other drugs
|Can mix||It is forbidden to mix|
|Potassium chloride||a piece of chalk|
|Potassium sulfate||Ammonium nitrate|
|Calcium Nitrate (Double Super Phosphate Only)||Dolomite flour|
|Ammonium sulfate||Sodium nitrate|
|Potassium salt||Calcium nitrate|
|Ammonium nitrate (double superphosphate only)|
|Potash fertilizers (dual superphosphate only)|
Benefits of using
Superphosphate is an inexpensive but effective fertilizer. The advantages of its use are:
- The drug has a beneficial effect on metabolism in plant tissues;
- Phosphorus is needed to strengthen the root system;
- The tool has a beneficial effect on the abundance of the crop and the taste of the fruit;
- The drug can be used in spring, autumn, and also during the growing season;
- The tool can be added to other dressings and receive complex fertilizers.
Disadvantages of use
However, the tool has several disadvantages.
First and foremost, you need to know exactly what kind of superphosphate you have. Monophosphate and double superphosphate are very similar top dressings, but some differences (mainly in dosage) exist.
The second disadvantage is that an excess of fertilizer is harmful to the plant. However, in fairness, I must say that for this you need to feed the plant only with phosphorus for a very long time. If you are a little mistaken in the dosage, then nothing bad will happen.
The third disadvantage is that the product acidifies the soil, so sometimes it is necessary to liming the soil.
How to determine an excess of fertilizer
Excess phosphorus is harmful to plants. They fade faster. Externally, an excess of trace elements is expressed in yellowing of the foliage, necrotic spots. Plants can get chlorosis. In the worst case, burns get roots, which leads to the death of the culture.
How to measure the amount of fertilizer
It is rare for anyone in the country to have a kitchen scale that can measure the weight of fertilizer to the nearest gram. Almost everyone uses more familiar measures of weight: a tablespoon and a teaspoon and a matchbox.
Below we have provided information on the amount of fertilizer that is placed in each of the mentioned containers.
How many grams of superphosphate in a tablespoon
In one tablespoon, 18 g of the powder product and 15 g of the product in the form of granules.
How many grams of superphosphate in a teaspoon
In a regular teaspoon, 5 grams of the product is placed.
How many grams of superphosphate in a matchbox
If you measure fertilizer with a matchbox, then know that 25 grams of the drug is placed in it.
- The tool is applied simultaneously with wood ash. As a result, part of the drug does not dissolve, and the plants do not receive it.
- The drug is introduced simultaneously with calcium nitrate. The same thing happens - phosphates do not dissolve and are inaccessible to plants.
- Mixing powder superphosphate with nitrogen fertilizers. Nitrogen neutralizes the action of phosphorus. Only granular fertilizers can be mixed.
- The solution is prepared indoors. Vapors from phosphorus are harmful to humans, so the drug must be diluted on the street.
- Fertilizer is simply scattered across the surface. In order to have the effect of the application, the fertilizer must be embedded in the depth of the roots of a particular plant.
Frequently Asked Questions
How to store bags with the drug?
Necessarily in a dry room. Naturally, it should be protected from children. You can not store the drug next to foods, medicines, paints, peat, machine oil.
Does this fertilizer have an expiration date?
Generally not, but the manufacturer is responsible for warranty for 5 years.
Which is better, monophosphate or double superphosphate?
Double is better because it has more phosphorus that plants need.
Do you have any analogues with the product?
Yes, for example, phosphorite flour or complex compounds (azofoska). But it is better to use double superphosphate. It is more effective.
Superphosphate is an effective fertilizer with many advantages. It is inexpensive and is available in almost all hardware stores. If you make it wisely and do not exceed the dosage, then your plants will be less likely to hurt, and they will yield more crops.